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DOMESTIC AND FANCY CATS. 



bOULTON&l'AUL,^  NSS^yjSH 



No. 98.— Portable Outdoor Cat House & Run. 



TRiilzed*>lre-ii*ttiTig;fltt«d 



No. 97.— Cat's House, with Run. 

Copatructed of red deal framing. 
Boom walls co'ered with longaed 
and groored match boarding, weather- 
boarded roof. dooM tn house and ran 
for cleaning purpoaei. 

CASH PRICES. 
Double House (Ha illuB- 

ttawdXTrt. filn. long 

bySft.wlde JBS O O 

Single Honse, 7ft. 6in. 

by2ft.6in S O O 

No. 147. — Improved Cat Pens. 

CASH PRICES. 

lit. Bin, square 3 8 e»<!h. 

2IL „ S O 

2tt.Sin 8 B 

Eitni ends for making each 
complete, */. each. 

Carritge Paid on all Brdart aban tOI- talm ta tin principal Railwajr Slallniu In 
Coglanil and Walai. 

ONLY THE BEST MATERIAL AKD WORKMAKSHIP EMPLOYED. 

Sand far ILLUSTRATED CATALOSUE of Kaanal and Poultry Appllaacaa, Irae en appllealiaa 



« -» 



THE ANGOHA CAT. 



I 



Domestic and 

Fancy 6ats: 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THEIR VARIETIES, 
BREEDING, MANAGEMENT, AND DISEASES. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



By JOHN JENNINGS. 



LONDON : 
L. UPCOTT GILL, 170, STRAND, W.C. 

NEW YORK : CHAS. SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157, FIFTH AVENUE. 

1901. 



LONDON : 
L. UPCOTT GILL, LONDON AND COUNTY PRINTING WORKS, 

DRURT LANS, W.C. 



PREFACE. 



Among several featares 'suggested by the increasing 
popularity of Cats^ both in domestic life and in the 
still more important arena of exhibitions^ none is 
more prominent than the need of a book containing 
concise information of a practical character, em- 
bodying the many requirements of the period, and 
brought up to date. In response to a wish expressed 
by many friends, with whom, especially as a frequent 
adjudicator, I have long been associated, this work 
is written, with the earnest hope that its many 
details will prove acceptable, as no pains have been 
spared to make its contents reliable. 

It is hardly necessary to state that but very few 
attain a high position in breeding varieties of 
Cat to the standard which our chief exhibitions 
now demand. Thus, it is important that my readers 
should understand that the information herein con- 
tained is not entirely the result of my own experience, 
but is also derived from specialists, who have as 
breeders and exhibitors especially distinguished 

themselves. 

J. J. 



M^-16 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. PAGE. 

I. — Varieties and their Characteristics - 9 

II. — Houses, Buns, and Pens - - - 24 

III.— Breeding 36 

IV.— Kittens 51 

v.— Nurse Cats 57 

VI.— Feeding - - . - . - - 59 

VII. — Preparation for Exhibition - - - 65 

VIII.— Diseases ------ 72 

IX. — Homes for Cats — Cat Clubs - - 81 

X. — Cat Items — Grave, Gay, and Humorous 84 

Index 89 



VARIETIES AND THEIB CHARAOTERISTIOS. 



^¥ the many Tarieties or breeds of the cat with 
which we are now familiar, from the ma^mficent 
Perbian down to the quite Buffioieiitly lauded tortoiae- 
Bhell, including the proverbial " Tortoiae-Bhell torn " 
which has engaged the attention of paist historiana 
for many years ; it moat be remembered that, however crossed, 
aelected, re-crosHed, domesticated, or wliat not, we have but 
two breeds on which the auperBtructuro of what ia known to-day 
aa the " clasBificatiou of varietiea" has been reared, viz., the 
Long-hail or Eaatem cat, and the Short-hair or European. The 



10 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

term " breed " is even here used advisedly, for whatever the outer 
covering or coat, colour or length of fur, the contour of each and 
all is practically the same. Nor is this confined to mere outline : 
take the skull, for example, which, measured in the usual manner 
with shot,* making due allowance for difference in size, is not 
only similar in the different varieties of either Long or Short-hair, 
but even in the wild cat the anatomy varies but little, and this is 
in a great measure satisfactorily explained by its different con- 
ditions of life and diet, and is in unison with the fact of how 
even the ordinary domestic cat will undergo a change, in taking 
up a semi-wild outdoor existence. As illustrating this change 
of conditions, I remember how, some twenty years ago, I recommended 
a well-known Belgian hare (rabbit) breeder, who complained to me of 
the " want of limb and raciness " in his exhibits, to try them in long 
wire runs, with the result that his stock in a few years, especially in 
length of limb and shape, required a close comparison to distinguish 
them from the veritable hare Lepus timidus : and what is equally to 
the point here, is how the features thus gained were transmitted, 
as several crosses I have since been able to authenticate corroborate. 
Starting, then, with the assumption that the Long-haired and 
Short-haired cats have distinguishing characteristics, I purpose con- 
sidering an^ describing the principal varieties thstt can be ranged 
under each section, including especially those for which classes are 
provided at our standard cat exhibitions. Difference of opinion will 
naturally exist as to which variety should occupy the premier 
position, and breeders and exhibitors of both Long and Short<hair 
can advance sterling reasons in support of their own speciality. 
With this admission therefore, both must consider that I have 
neither the wish nor the intention of writing-up or depreciating 
either, except so far as is needful for the advancement of each. 

LONG-HAIR CATS. 

The several varieties which range under Long-hair embrace 
Persian, Angora, Chinese, Indian, French, and Russian. While 

* The skull is filled with shot and weighed, and thus its capacity is obtained. 






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VARIETIES Al^D THEIB CHARACTERISTICS. H 

the Short-hair has also representatiyes in Bnasia and China, 
and includes Siamese, Abyssini&n, and Manx, in addition to our 
well-known European cat with its sub-divisions by colour. The 
remarks I propose to add are based on what is now generally ac- 
cepted as pertaining to the several countries, whereby selection, 
breeding, and probably climatic influences, certain marked 
peculiarities have been developed, sustained, and perpetuated. 

THE PERSIAN. — With the greatmajority of cat- fanciers, as well 
as visitors to exhibitions, the Persian is held in great admiration, 
and is generally considered the prince- of Eastern cats. And 
it would be a difficult matter to find a handsomer animal than a 
well-bred and fully matured Persian. Its colour may be white, 
black, blue, chinchilla, smoke, tortoise-shell, tortoise-shell and white, 
red, brown, grey or silver tabby, or each of these in tabbies 
and white. With many, the Wliite Persian, which describes itself, 
is a great favourite, and if in grand condition is verily a *' thing of 
beauty^' so long as it retains its spotless condition of coat. Blue, 
Oliinchilla, Smoke, and Black, are also much esteemed ; Blue and 
chinchilla almost universally more so than the former, the 
difficulty being to keep a white in show condition without washing, 
which takes a lot of time, patience and ability. 

The Blue, which is a rich light slate colour, should be even in 
texture and long throughout, clear in colour from roots to tip of fur, 
the ears being well lined with hair of the same colour, which should 
also extend to and include the feet. The Chinchilla is a peculiar 
but beautiful variety ; the fur at the roots is silver, and shades to the 
tips to a decided slate hue, giving a most pleasing and attractive 
appearance. Smoke is a somewhat similar colour combination, 
except that the roots are of a blue-grey tint, shading to a smoky- 
black at the tips. A feature of high importance in all long-haired 
cats is a large and well-developed frill. For exhibition it is essential 
that they should be of mature age and soimd in coat. A trace 
of markings a shade darker is at times observed in both the 
Chinchilla and Smoke. The Black needs no description beyond 
the mention that it should be jet-black, the least rustiness being 

B 2 



12 DOMESTIC OB FASCX CAT8L 

▼ery objectionable. Of the other Tarieties of colour, a rich brown 
tabby stands well to the front, especially if properly developed 
thronghoat. The Brown Tabby shoold be well broken by the black 
markingB, evenly balanced, the lighter ground colour being clear 
and in excess . this is of much greater importanoe than the actnal 
distribution of markings, which if splashed in colour or having any 
intermixture of colours, would considerably discount any otherwise 
good points that a specimen might have. These remarks apply to 
each variety of tabby. The Tortoise-shell, which is a mixture of 
red, yellow, and black patches in place of the striped tabby mark- 
ings, should have these patches well broken to show each colour 
clear and distinct, though not too large, in each patch, the 
red and yellow being less in evidence than the black. 

The time-honoured axiom that ** A good horse cannot be a bad 
colour " can be specially applied to Persian cats. Granted that 
colour is a desideratum of no m^an importance, nevertheless it 
must not be overlooked that the chief characteristics of the breed 
are length of hair, which is fine in quality and evenly distributed 
over the body and legs, covering the toes ; good pads to the feet ; 
a large well-developed frill, full behind the head, extending round 
the neck, and covering as far as possible the chest ; and last, but not 
by any means least, an exceedingly bushy tail, swelling out 
larger towards the extremiiy and then terminating with a graceful 
taper point. The ears should be somewhat small, in carriage 
pointing somewhat forward, the inner surface being hidden by a 
growth of fur extending from the face. The head should be small 
for the size of cat, the male, as in other varieties, being larger, and 
also squarer in skull formation. The eyes should be full and 
in colour a rich bright amber, except in whites, when blue 
is the characteristic, and I may say in competition the 
essential tint. 

The body should be long and rounding, the tail carried 
decidedly lower, and the head slightly rising above level of the 
back. The feet should be moderately short but not stumpy, 
and they should also be perfectly straight, especially the fore feet. 



r 



VABIETIES AND THEIB CHABACTEBISTICS. 13 

In 6ize a mature Persian should scale* 81b. to 101b. But 
altliongh size is an important feature and is duly estimated 
in judging, I have not infrequently noticed that when they are 
much in excess of this weight, the coat has an objectionable wiry 
tendency, getting also shorter, on the face particularly. This is 
especially to be observed in tortoise-shell, red, and other tabbies. 
I have also come across several large blacks exhibiting this 
objectionable feature. Had some judges gone in less for markings 
and colour, and proportionately more for length, quality, quantity^ 
and distribution of coat, I am not alone in expressing and 
emphasising the opinion that we should have less of the 
experimental results of short-hair crosses placed before us for 
adjudication in long-hair classes at exhibitions. 

Having fully considered the Persian, the chief representative, a 
few remarks will dispose of the other long-haired varieties from a 
practical point of view. Because a specimen is described as 
emanating fiom this, that, or the other country, my readers will 
do well to avoid a too hasty acceptance as to the purity or 
nationality of the breed. I give one instance out of very many 
with which I am personally acquainted to show that even judges 
and specialist breeders are deceived. For reasons which I am sure 
T shall be properly credited with, I refrain from mentioning names; 
suffice it to say that the cat I refer to won principal honours 
in long-hair classes for several seasons, making a considerable total 
prize-winning record. Now this specimen, to my certain know- 
ledge, was the result of an accidental cross quite foreign to the 
breed it represented. How many cases of a similar character 
could be adduced, especially by those who have cats on sale, I 
hardly like to suggest. 

THE ANGORA differs from the Persian chiefly in type of coat, 
head, ears, and tail ; for whereas the hair of the Persian is evenly 
balanced all over, that of an Angora is softer in texture, exceedingly 
glossy, and hangs in clusters, so to speak, of great length, nearly 
touching the floor, the interstices being of a more woolly character. 
The principal colour, and that most valued for its wool by the 



14 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

natives of Angora is white. In its native habitats this fur forms 
an important article of commerce, much sought after by mer- 
chants of the surrounding countries. 

The shape of the head of the Angora is more angular, compared 
with the Persian roundness, while an important point is well- 
tufted ears, making them appear larger than they actually are. 
The hair of the tail should hang like the coat, and taper from 
body 10 extremity. It is not essential to mention the other colours, 
but I may remark that the full Angora characteristics should 
be present to raise them, like Caesar's wife, beyond suspicion. 
And finally I must add that to maintain these characteristics 
the strain must be kept pure, and reliable crosses obtained from 
their native habitat. 

THE CHINESE and ^NDIANS partake a great deal of the 
Persian, except that in Intfia we have what is well known there as a 
" Tiger cat " (not the wild Tiger cat subsequently referred to), with 
striped markings of red and black ; it has long hair, but coarser in 
texture than either of the other long-haired varieties, and its ears 
are larger and less furred internally than the Persian, whose tail, 
however, it closely resembles. 

THE FRENCH.— In France a breed of long-haired cats has been 
perpetuated for some centuries, and the name ''French" has 
been given to a variety not indigenous to the country. The coats 
are exceedingly long and wonderfully silky, in which respect they 
partake of a Persian and Angora combination. They are whole 
coloured, chiefly Irlue, and erstwhile were bred by the Chartreuse 
monks, who, in common with the brotherhood of kindred monasteries , 
carried out secretly such valuable experiments in the breeding and 
crossing of domestic animals. A certain amount of ingenuity was 
displayed by these brethren in seclusion, pardonable perhaps, in- 
asmuch as their institution derived the sole benefit by all sales ; 
and as the income from this source was considerable, and therefore 
important, it is not surprising to learn that many purchases failed 
in reproduction, though whether due to altered circumstances or 
conditions, or both, I am not in a position to state. I only know 



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VARIETIES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. 17 

that similar cases happened with a breed of rabbits, the Andalusia^, 
in which size was a speciality — bred under the same monastical 
supervision and restraint. 

KUSSIAN. — A few remarks on the Bussian, and my obseivations 
on long-haired cats will be complete. As compared with the varieties 
already described, a certain coarseness is observable among the 
Kussian, which is perhaps in a measure due to the type of the 
coat. 1?his is by far the most woolly of cats, but interspersed 
throughout its coat is a wiry Mnd of hair which certainly contributes 
to the appearance of coarseness. It has the largest ears of long- 
haired varieties, and they are proportionately tufted, the limbs are 
stout, the feet short, and the tail very bushy, having a stumpy ter- 
mination. The colour is generally dark ; where markings exist they 
are usually indistinct, and vary but few shades from the colour 
which predominates. 

SHORT-HAIR CATS. 

A thorough consideration of the Short-haired breed of cats can 
be best approached by dividing them into three sections ; viz. 
broken or several colours, self or whole colours, and any other 
distinct variety. 

THE TORTOISE-SHELL.— In broken colours, according to 
ancient custom, established usage, or what not, priority of place is 
accorded to the Tortoise-shell, which should be medium in si/e and 
long in, body, with graceful legs and feet and a small head, the ears 
erect, set well apart, angular, and not too pointed. Eyes a bright 
amber. Coat should be short for the size of cat, fine in texture, soft 
to the touch and brilliant. Far and away, however, the most im- 
portant feature consists in the colours ; these should embrace red, 
yellow, and black patches, < each being well broken and evenly 
distributed over the body, legs, feet, and tail ; these essential mark- 
ings should also be sharp and distinct, the black being especially 
subservient to the other colours, though in some parts of England 
a much darker type is preferred. Blur, and want of definition of 
markings, has, however, always been the weak point with Tortoise- 



18 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CAT& 

shells. In Tortoise-shell and white, or any other variety and white, 
the Dutch rabbit markings are most popular, especially as applying 
to blaze (face markings), feet and stops (white hind-feet extremi- 
ties); the chest should be white, taking in fore-feet but not extending 
round the neck as in the Dutch collar. Another accepted marking 
is bla2se and all four feet with equal white stops, this usually 
occurring in blue-and-white or black-and-White. There is also 
another broken colour marking, the other way about, in which 
white is the predominating colour. I do not at all recommend its 
propagation, and its only chance of scoring in prize-lists depends on 
a balance of even markings of any dark colour, which are as a 
whole in contradistinction. 

TABBIES. — The consideration of Tabbies brings us face to face 
with a most varied array of colour. It is the markings, however, 
that give it its distinguishing features ; these in some kinds are in 
the form of narrow bands, also called stripes, the name '' Tabby" 
being derived — so we are credibly informed — from "Atab," a 
famous street in Bagdad inhabited by the manufacturers of silken 
stuffs called ** Atabj," or taffety, the wavy markings of the watered 
silks closely resembling those of the striped Tabby cat. 

We have, on the other hand, spotted Tabbies, a species of 
marking wonderfully resembling the spotted leopard, from which 
the name probably originates. But, whether striped or spotted, 
certain features must be incorporated in a thoroughly representa- 
tive specimen. 

I will deal first with colour. This may be either white, silver, 
blue, grey, brown, red, yellow, or chocolate, remembering that it 
is the ground-colour, i.e. the colour in excess, which obtains and 
gives the accepted name as a distinctive variety. As regards the 
importance of the evenness and clearness of this ground-colour, 
too much cannot be impressed on exhibitors generally, and breeders 
most especially, as cloudy or woolly shades often negative a 
specimen otherwise good in markings. 

Which colour of Tabby should have priority of place ? This 
query is often asked at shows, but I opine, that if any such views 



J 



VARIETIES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. ' 19 

Tvere classified, those who were the fortunate possessors of other 
equally well-marked exhibits would beg to differ from mine or 
any other dictum. Certain coloui^s are, however, more difficult to 
breed, and some others by contrast show up better. Thus the 
Silver Tabby, with its narrow, black, wavy stripes, will always be 
much admired, and^if these markings are sharp and distinct, as 
they should be, but not always are, it generally can be taken as 
evidence of great care in mating and breeding. Again, with Red 
Tabbies, here is a variety, especially the female or queen cat, that 
needs great discrimination in breeding ; at least, they are difficult to 
produce. The Brown Tabby is by many much esteemed, being a 
large, rich-coloured and grand cat, and without doubt it deserves 
all the encomiums that ardent owners bestow thus with each : — 

** Their claims, their points, their merits ; 
Increase with importance 
As your love to them extends." 

The markings claim a consideration equal, at least, to colour ; 
in fact, with short-haired cats, first-class markings would 
count more in points ; these, as I have already mentioned, con- 
sist of stripes or bands, and spots. The striped markings should 
be somewhat narrower than the intervening colour spaces, though 
not to such an extreme as to give a bald appearance to the coat ; 
they should also be regulai'ly distributed over the body and chest, 
each side matching; face, legs, and tail also being specially 
uniform in markings. The proper colour of these stripes is black, 
with a body-colour of white, silver, grey, brown, or blue : while in 
red, yellow, or chocolate, and al so a recent blue variety, the striped 
markings should be two or tliree shades darker than the pre- 
dominating ground-colour ; otherwise sufficient to give a well- 
defined contrast. In size. Tabbies should be large — the larger the 
better, if well proportioned. The ears should be fairly large, the 
tail long and tapering, and the coat somewl^at soft in texture, and 
a trifle longer than Tortoise-shell. 

The Spotted Tabby requires but little description beyond ro- 






20 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

marking that, as in the striped, so is the ground the distingniaTiing 
colour, and it ought to be particularly clear throughout, though 
it has yet to be bred up to this degree of perfection. The spots, 
of medium size — the sharper in outline the better — should, in a 
grand exhibit, extend in a perfectly uniform manner entirely over 
the body, feet/ and tail, and if on the face its value is so much 
increased. My remarks on colour of stripes equally apply to the 
colour of these spots. 

Spotted Tabbies ought not to be intermixed with the several 
colours, and '* white " markings, at least, they are better without. 
So also, in my opinion, are the various-coloured striped Tabbies, 
and I personally consider that breeders could with much better 
advantage and profit improve and perfect those markings that are 
really the distinguishing characteristics of the Tabby cat. White 
blaze, chest and feet markings, make a grand variety when a 
"self," or even tortoise-shell, forms body-colour; but it often 
\^ occurs to me, that the " and white " additions to Tabby colours 
are, at the least, decidedly incongruous. 

Self-coloured cats must, as the name implies, be of one whole 
colour throughout ; the slightest trace of any other colour foreign 
to what is considered as a " self " places an otherwise good 
exhibit hors de combat. Under this heading, every shade of. 
colour is admissible ; the most important, however, are blue, white, 
black, red, cream, and grey. We have two types in blue, the 
English and Bussian ; the latter being far and away in advance, 
alike in colour and in quality of coat. In size, they closely re- 
semble the tortoise-shell ; the coat being short, exceptionally fine 
in texture, and brilliant. The colour should be a bright slate- 
blue, and the eyes amber. The English cat of this colour is 
larger, though not of the tabby size ; the coat is longer, and 
although soft to the touch, is coarser in texture than the Russian 
blue. A special feature with the Bussian are its ears : these are 
not so pointed as in the English, but are fairly large for the size of 
the cat, and should be well coated with fur to match the body- 
coloTit. The legs are moderately long in each, while the tail ia 









VARIETIES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. 21 

very full, stout near the body, and tapering, though not too 
pointed, to its extremity. 

THE WHITE should be pure and snow-like, free from any stain, 
with a coat soft and very silky in texture. The eyes need the 
attention of breeders ; they should always be blue, though lately I 
have met with pink and yellow more often than should be. Another 
important point is that the eyes should match in colour. Odd 
eyes are a similar blemish in some rabbits, especially " Dutch," in 
which a white has been used to clear the markings. Odd-eyed cats 
are oftimes the result of much crossing for colours and markings. 
In shape, size, and general contour, the lines of the English blue 
shoald be followed ; and this applies to each othe self -colour. 

THE BLACK. ** As black and shining as coal " is a good descrip. 
tion of the colour a Black cat shoald be. In texture, the coat is 
somewhat coarser and longer than that of the White, but still soft 
and brilliant. The eyes should be a rich hazel, though green is 
permissible. 

THE BED is of a bright sandy colour, with yellow eyes, and is 
generally a large cat. 

OBEYS vary in shade from white to brown-grey, and neither 
takes precedence, provided each colour is even, clear, and distinct. 
The eyes vary from yellow to deep amber. 

THE OBEAM is a more modem variety of cat, and is at present 
only occasionally met with ; but it will, I opine, ultimately find 
numerous admirers. At present, good specimens are scarce, as 
they require great care in breeding till the variety is made or 
concentrated. The fur should be of a fawn ground, shading to 
nearly white extremities, fairly long for a short-haired cat, but 
exceedingly brilliant. The eyes should be hazel or green in shade, 
and the ears medium-sized. The body should be symmetrical in 
shape, neat in outline, and of medium size. 

Having thus far dealt in a descriptive manner with those 
varieties in broken or self -colour Short-haired cats that are 
usually met with or recognised at standard exhibitions, I now 
come to what has not inaptly been called the " Haven of Eefuge, 



99 



22 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

viz., "Any other variety.** I trust, however, tbe day is not far 
distant when committees will obtain such support from clubs and 
specialist exhibitors as will enable them to provide distinctive 
classes. The principal varieties that are classified under this 
heading are, Abyssinians, Manx, and Siamese. Of course, an- 
omalous specimens — Sports in breeding — ever and again recur, 
including six toes and other malformations; which, however 
interesting they may be as curios, serve no good purpose in 
propagation. 

TBJ) ABYSSINIAN promises to increase in popularity, and 
whether imported or a manufactured cross hardly matters, as it now 
breeds fairly true to points. Certainly, no variety bas yet re- 
joiced in such varied names, several countries claiming it as their 
own. In neither, however, can I find much approach to its type, 
so conclude that the art of crossing and selection has played no 
unimportant part in its propagation. Those who are familiar with 
the Belgian hare rabbit will have no difi&culty i^ recognising the 
cat yclept Abyssinian. The fur throughout has for ground-colour 
a rufous red, ticked with chocolate-black ; ears, medium-sized and 
laced with black; and a narrow, well-defined stripe of black 
running longitudinally along the spine, and continuing to the 
extremity of the tail, is a feature of great importance in a good 
exhibition specimen. The eye varies in colour, but a bright hazel 
is generally met with. In size, the Abyssinian resembles the 
self-coloured English cat. The coat should be very close and 
soft, and the brighter the better, though some are weak in this 
respect. 

THE MANX, as the majority of readers are aware, is a variety 
conspicuous by the absence of a caudal appendage. Whether 
however, all the cats said to emanate from the Isle of Man are 
actually born and bred without tails, at least leaves room for 
suspicion. From an exhibition point of view, the m^rit of a 
specimen depends mainly on its having not the slightest trace of 
tail, though some admit a small stump, on what I consider a want 
of reliable information, especially when we consider that this 



VAEIETIES AND TH£IB CHARACTERISTICS. 23 

stamp is what woiild be likely to appear if the tail were cut in its 
early stages. In shape and size the Manx resembles the ordinary 
short-haired cat, and may be of any colour and markings, the 
absence of tail giving the appearance of greater length of limb. 
We now and again come across long-haired cats without tails, but 
I have yet to learn how or in what way they can be termed Manx. 
Grenerally I do not think the Isle of Man speciality will ever 
obtain a large following, the tailless characteristic failing to enlist 
popular sympathy. 1 am not alone in considering that ''Our 
Oat,'^ whose symmetry and graceful form is such an object of 
admiration, requires to have full possession of its tail to complete 
the perfect outline. 

THE SIAMESE, or Eoyal Cat of Siam, by which name it is 
also distinguished, from the fact that it is propagated and pro- 
tected imder Boyal supervision, is without doubt a magnificent 
animal and well worthy of the kingly patronage. A pure-bred 
Siamese is a valuable cat, especially the male, for like the 
Chartreuse monks' productions, as previously described, the 
majority are rendered neuter. This, when we consider how the 
male influences outward characteristics, may, in a measure, explain 
why several what I call " off colours " are now and again exhibited 
as Siamese, a cross probably between a pure-bred Siamese female 
and our short-haired self-coloured male cat. The special colour 
of the Siamese is a clear dun, with no trace of sooty blemishes on 
body. The extremities, viz. nose, ears, feet, and tail, have black 
markings, and those on the nose should extend and encircle the 
eyes. The coat is particularly short and close in texture, even, 
and brilliant ; the tail is not so tapering as in ordinary cats, while 
as regards size, medium and certainly not large, can be taken as a 
correct description. The eyes are deep blue in the pure breed, and 
are therefore important. 

From the foregoing descriptive remarks, my readers will gain a 
good insight into the classification of varieties; and wUl have 
but little difficulty in recognising typical specimens at our 
Standard Exhibition. 



HOUSES, RUNS, AND PENS. 

^ the uninitiated in cattj matters the idea of erecting 
a habitation separate and distinot ftom the dtmiestia 
toof will be considered a piecu of extravagance, at leaert 
not warranted by their owit information. 
And yet a little consideration will bring 
with it epeedy couviction, that if poultry-breedera need their 
houses and runs; the dog fraternity their kennels; pigeon- 
fancisTB their lofts and pens; rabbit enthusiasta their rabbitries 
and hutches ; then why not houses, runs, and pena for fancy cats ) 
The admission of these essential conditions as indispensable by 



HOUSES, RUNS, AND PENa 25 

the patrons of our kindred fancies will, I opine, contribute to some 
such means being adopted by those of our cat friends who go in 
extensively for breeding and exhibiting. 

But while placing before readers what may be considered as a 
very desirable habitation, I am, of course, not suggesting that one 
or even more good cats cannot be bred without, for, as a matter of 
fact, some exhibitors who have no such houses or runs have 
an average share of success. This naturally applies chiefly to 
owners of limited studs, or to those who do not object to turning 
part of their residential establishment into catteries, and ex- 
ercising the necessary supervision when Felts (domesticus or other- 
wise) take their walks abroad. However well this may be in its 
way, it is open to grave objections, of which the need of strict atten- 
tion to sanitary considerations is not alone in importance ; and how 
far these conditions can be observed and maintained in conjunction 
with and within the domestic circle will largely depend on its 
dimensions and the application of our cat-loving friends. 

" What is worth doing at all is worth doing well " aptly applies 
here, especially if the breeding and exhibiting of fancy cats, as a 
source of profit, is the ultimate object ; and as this work is intended 
to be practical, my remarks are obviously directed towards the 
satisfactory attainment of these results. 

The first point, then, for consideration is what space you have, 
or wish to have, placed at disposal ; whether a distinct cattery, or 
a utilisation of stables, disused greenhouses, or other outbuildings. 
In respect of any of these erections that are to be pressed into 
service, I may say that they play an important part with very 
many breeders and exhibitors, and when the details are properly 
carried out are successful. Strict attention however to the sanitary 
conditions, as previously mentioned, is imperative. On this subject 
I shall subsequently go into detail. It will be apparent that 
the probable extent of your breeding stock will be largely 
regulated by the space elected to be so set apart for the 
purpose. The second point is, do you purpose exhibiting ? And 
the third and most important, do you intend to retain cats at 

c 



26 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

stud ? But throughout, and whatever your plans and operations 
may be, never lose sight of the fact that overcrowding retards 
development, fosters disease, and is highly responsible for the major- 
ity of losses, among which a much-treasured specimen may succumb 
that has taken a considerable period to breed up to and perfect, and 
which a similar period of care may not always, from the variety of 
causes that governs the function of reproduction, produce anew. 

Assuming, then, that the intention is to breed, exhibit, and keep 
cats at stud, the cat student should always inwardly digest the axiom 
that '^ Nothing succeeds like success," coupling with it as essential 
features : well-arranged houses ; warmth and immunity from 
sudden variations of temperature ; ventilation, runs, sun, grass, 
and pens. Bemember, that success in the show-pen depends on 
certain conditions, which will be duly explaiiied, being strictly 
observed and carried out; and, inasmuch as exhibition honours 
bring the most important item on the profit side, viz. sales and 
stud fees — with many a considerable sum — so is the need accen- 
tuated that the arrangements should be full and complete ; ac-. 
commodation in excess of current requirements being reserved. 

Having briefly noticed the leading features of a well-arranged 
cattery, essential for the development of stock, and maintaini^ 
its health and vigour, the purpose of this work will be best 
attained by describing in detail an establishment in which all the 
conditions of breeding, preparation for exhibiting, and treatment 
of the feline ailments can be observed, together with the separate 
habitation essential for stud cats, and a hospital for infectioua 
diseases. With full details thus placed before my readers, it will 
be competent for them to modify or enlarge their plans, taking 
especial care, however, to strictly observe the parts emphasised. 

The accompanying illustrations convey a general idea of the 
extent and arrangements of a complete cattery. On referring to 
Fig. 1, which is the ground-plan, it will be seen the total length 
is eighty-six feet, and the width forty-two feet. In selecting a 
position, remember that is most suitable which will admit the 
greatest amount of sunshine. A very effective material, apart 



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Fig, 1.— Cat house and runs gbound plan. 



C 2 



HOUSES, RUNS, AND PENS. 29 

from bricks and mortar, for the erection is corrugated galvanised 
iron, match-lined throughout, with five or six inches of concrete 
as the intervening basis between the ground and the wooden 
floor. For the floor, well-seasoned three-quarter inch floor-boards 
should be used, so that no space will exist between each board to 
encourage any accumulation of moisture. On damp situations it 
would be desirable, before laying the flooring boards, to introduce 
a oniB-inch layer of equal parts of Portland cement and sand on 
the top of the concrete. The system of ventilation, which is 
highly important, will bo explained further on, but arrangements 
for efliectually draining the roofs and carrying off rain will suggest 
themselves on the spot ; only, remember it must be done. 

On entering by the door (A) a hall, the total width of the 
erection, and about six feet deep, will be observed. Banged on 
each side of the door, on the outer side, and extending to each 
end, are placed a single tier of exhibition pens (PP). Here, cats 
are trained for the show-pen, and the importance and ad- 
vantage of this arrangement are referred to in the chapter devoted 
to " Preparation for Exhibition." The height of this entrance- 
hall must naturally depend on surrounding conditions ; the higher 
the better, and certainly not less than sixteen to twenty feet. In 
the roof, immediately over the door, is placed a ventilator, the 
opening to which from the ceiling being six feet by two feet, and 
projecting two feet outside. This exposed part should be boarded 
round, its three sides being covered with zinc, and be gable-shaped 
on top ; the front having boards arranged venetian-blind like, so 
that no wet can beat in. Inside, two shutters should be arranged, 
sliding in grooves ; these can have sash-lines and pulleys attached, 
so that they can be opened wide or closed, as the temperature 
for the time being suggests, and will perfectly ventilate the whole 
structure. In this hall the heating apparatus will have to be 
arranged: warmth in winter is essential, but it can be dis- 
pensed with in summer. For this purpose there is no better 
plan than a system of hot water, which can be arranged to take 
in the hall and the rooms that lead out of it. This will be at once 



30 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

apparent to the observer. The roof of the hall is ten inches 
higher than the roof of the rooms, the space being fitted with 
glazed sashes for daylight illumination (Fig. 1). 

On the side of the hall opposite to the entrance wiU be ob- 
served five doors (BB), the upper part of each being covered with 
wire netting, which enables you to see the occupants if needed 
without disturbing them, and allowing the all-important air 
to circulate and efiectively ventilate the rooms. These rooms 
consist of four actual apartments, divided as follows : — C, 
ten by ten feet for male cats ; D, six by ten feet for weaned 
kittens ; E, ten by ten feet, for female cats ; and F, sixteen by 
ten feet, for cats with kittens, which can be sub-divided by 
movable partitions (GG), with, say, four compartments, each four 
by ten feet, or as circumstances suggest, folding doors being 
arranged for this purpose. Each of the various rooms can have 
slielves or brackets not less than eighteen inches wide, with an 
edge projecting upwards about six inches. 

Most breeders have their fancies as to beds ; some litter the floor 
with straw, but I prefer boxes or shelves, comfortably littered, and 
moreover, all draught is thereby avoided. Sanitary arrangements 
in these catteries are not so difficult, for the free access to the 
outside runs, if cats have been trained to habits of cleanliness, 
will be readily sought for and discovered by them. Still it may 
be desirable to provide receptacles, and I know of no better than 
the large stoneware pans supplied by Spratts Patent, or zinc 
trays can be made to whatever size and shape is desired. Opinion 
varies as to what these are to be filled with. I have from the 
earliest period, and down to date, been an advocate of dry earth ; 
some however consider sawdust as far and away the best, and only 
a few years ago I was informed by a large breeder that if 
earth and sawdust be placed in separate receptacles, sawdust will 
be selected by the cat. Be this as it may, I am still open to con. 
viction of its ef&cacy, over Nature's deodoriser. An efficient 
deodoriser or disinfectant should always be kept at hand, such 
as Izal, Sauitas, Jeyes', or Lawes', which rank above most 



^ 



HOUSES, KUNS, AND PENS. 33 

others. A small hole in each apartment, for exit into the runs, 
completes the inner arrangements, and if protected with a wide 
board placed inside at an angle, will let in air but prevent draughts 
to the inmates. 

Like the entrance hall, these rooms, 1 may say, have light 
admitted in a similar manner by making the runs about a foot 
lower, and, if needed, a further system of ventilation, by one or 
more sashes being provided with a ventilator, will be sufficiently 
obvious for application. 

The majority of breeders will probably feed indoors, but in any 
case an earthen trough of clean water, frequently renewed, should 
be a prominent feature in the arrangements. 

Passing on to the runs, each divided with wire netting, the 
covered ones, i.e, roofed (HH), should not be less than twenty feet 
in length, and if the cats are fed out of doors a strip of about five 
feet should be cemented, the other part being dry earth frequently 
renewed. These runs should be furnished with wire doors (WW) 
leading to each other and at the end of each run. 

The grass runs (II) thirty feet long, wired at top and sides, will 
be utilised when conditions are favourable, and will be highly 
conducive to health, especially with accompanying sunshine. 

For reasons which will be readily discovered, which I emphasise, 
stud cats need each a separate run and accommodation. Of these 
(J J) ten by ten feet are the house dimensions ; many have less, but 
it is important that these veterans should be well housed and 
attended to, as they mean an investment, capable of paying a 
good dividend. The covered runs (KK) are each thirteen feet in 
length, and the grass is of the same dimensions. . 

The hospital (M) for any disease suspected of being infectious, 
finishea the programme ; but if proper supervision is exercised, it 
will rarely be in request with the careful exhibitor's own stock, 
though cats sent for stud and fresh purchases at times need 
isolation. 

The Elevation (Fig. 2) will explain any details omitted in the 
previous description. The entrance door is not shown. The 



34 DOMESTIC OB FANCT CATS. 

TarionB roof levels will be obseryedy each well projecting over the 
other to cany off rain. A, shows the ventilator ; BB, sashes 
which are glazed or have extra ventilation applied ; C, entrance to 
covered rons ; BD, grass rons ; £E, stud-cat houses ; EF, doors 
glazed at top ; G, ventilator ; H, runs ; and I, hospital. Artificial 
illumination will, of course, be needed, but circumstances and con- 
ditions will suggest and supply omission under this head. 

I need hardly observe that the expense of such an erection will 
be a consideration with some fanciers, and an important factor 
with them against adopting it in its complete form. For this reason, 
before bringing my instructions to a conclusion, 1 will add a few 
remarks, chiefly directed to those who, while wishing to breed a 
few good cats, or maybe keep a stud one, have but a limited fund 
for disposal in this direction, or very probably have not the space 
at command for the complete structure. To them I say, and with 
emphasis, '^ Do not keep more than two or three at the outside, 
and give full attention to them." The cats must kitten indoors, a 
cupboard or some quiet nook being reserved for them, taking caro 
that no undue interference occurs prior to or after littering. Of 
course, with a cat of value, great supervision is needed to prevent 
an alien cross, and here an ordinary fowls' run may be requisitioned. 
1 have frequently known large hutches to be used for this purpose 
with the latter arrangement, giving them, of course, exercise under 
supervision at periodical intervals. The fowls' run also can, failing 
any other convenience, be utilised for stud-cats, for these gentry 
are only too addicted to rambling, and their utility is thereby 
sacrificed. It is in any case highly desirable to have them in a 
given place, and accustom them to regard it as their sphere, for 
reasons which the purpose of stud animals will readily suggest. 

Apart from either of the above means of restricting the limits 
of either sex, portable houses and runs claim the best consideration 
of cat-fanciers. These are always useful even as a reserve, while 
for those who have premises of considerable extent, they can be 
placed in positions adding to the picturesque effect, and at the 
same time ensuring comfort and health-giving properties to their 



HOUSES, BUN3, AKD FENa. 35 

inmates. I waa mncli struck on a recent visit to Messn. Spratta' 
Btorerooms and workshops, to see Bome excellent houaea and ruas, 
several of which could be shifted at intervals, thereby avoiding 
tainted ground. Many fanciers take a pleasure in, and are quite 
capable of, making and adapting houses themselves ; to them the 
instmctions throughout this chapter are ample. Otherwise 1 
strongly advise a visit to the firm mentioned. 

I think the foregoing details are sufficiently lucid to enable 
all to understand what is neoesBary. Those new to the breed- 
ing and eihibiting oi fancy cats, need that instruction, which 
those matured friends in this rapidly growing fancy more or less 



CHAPTER III. 

BREEDING, 

^ HE description of breeds or yarietiea of fancy cats, with 
their ante-hiBtorical aasociationa, and all the facilities 
for adequately and efficiently providing them with 
habitations, distinct or otherwise, ate of little 
use from a fancier's standpoint, unless we 
apply them practically in the great problem of hreeding. 

On the amount of judicioua application hinges the perfecting 
of our present varieties, and the propagation of fresh ones, at all 
times a source of interest and instruction to the fancier, and I 
opine few will disagree when 1 add my personal opinion that it 



BREEDING. 37 

occupies a position of importance second to none with any chapter 
in the work. 

At what age should the queen cat breed ? and what period of its 
existence is most suitable for the stud cat to be used ? are points 
that need premier attention. We all know that maternal duties 
can be undertaken very soon after six months, but those who wish 
to breed fancy cats to a state of decent development must not 
allow any eai'lier pairing than at nine or twelve months, and never 
till the queen is fully in coat. I have known many endeavour to 
restrain their breeding inclinations till eighteen months, and, 
although successful in some cases, the animals frequently turn out 
indifferent breeders when their natural propensities are thus kept 
in check for a period in advance of when Nature asserts herself. 

With the stud cat, or cats intended for stud purposes, great care 
should be exercised not to allow access to a female cat until at 
least twelve months is reached, and I have no hesitation in adding 
that another year will add to its value at stud. It should also be 
remembered that the outward characteristics are in a great measure 
transmitted by the male cat, therefore look well to this when 
marking, colour and shape are being considered. Do not lose 
sight of the fact that age with the male cat will still further accen- 
tuate and act as a factor in this development, especially with a 
queen cat considerably his junior ; except in the case of breeding 
for the Tortoise-shell male, as explained further on, remember, when 
pairiDg, that whenever possible, ages should vary. Each animal 
should be in the best of condition, and with Persians and Long- 
haired varieties generally, fully out in coat, and not showing any 
indication of moult ; the most desirable period being when they 
are just fresh through this critical part of their existence. 

The indications of the coming season are much more marked 
with some queen cats than with others ; in fact, it requires an 
expert eye to distinguish the precocious proclivities of many, 
especially those exceptionally high-bred. But generally their 
restless habits, changed character, and peculiar cry, are indications 
of a desire to mate that cat-breeders soon recognise. It is, however, 



38 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CAT& 

especially important to ascertain as neai'ly exactly as possible 
this period, for nothing spoils a stud cat more than attempting to 
pair with him queens not in proper season. With some queens 
the desire for mating is retained a fortnight, though usually only 
for three or four days. Another point to be observed is to avoid 
useless pairing ; one service generally suffices, and no advantage 
accrues from more than twice, when union successfully takes place. 

The cat's period of gestation is nine weeks, during which 
strict attention must be paid to feeding and general condition of 
health, a little flower of sulphur given occasionally being ad- 
vantageous. Avoid handling the cat while in this condition. 
Some people are fond of nursing and pulling them about, which in 
cats of value in this interesting condition must not for a moment 
be allowed. 

As the time for kittening approaches, see that good hay or straw 
litter is provided, and if the latter see that it is well beaten. If 
littering in the house as described and illustrated, some prefer the 
broad shelf with a high ledge, but there are times when the kittens 
hanging on to the teats or from other causes, fall over, and bad 
accidents thus arise. Baskets harbour fleas, so probably there 
is nothing better than a good box on the floor, which when out of 
use, or between being used, can be well washed, a little carbolic 
aoid being added to the hot water for a flnal rinse prior to 
thoroughly drying. According to the weather, so must any 
additional wrappings be used, and if it is very severe a hot-water 
bottle in one corner of the nest will keep them warm and snug for 
n^any hours at a time^ I need hardly remark that the box or 
nest must be in a position that will secure absolute quiet and 
freedom from interference. 

For many reasons 1 object to feeding in the box where the cat 
kittens ; both mother and young get on better when fed elsewhere, 
and there is loss fear of the nest being tainted ; for when shut in, 
as some are in hutches, and fed therein, a want of cleanliness is 
encouraged in the mother that is highly important to avoid, not to 
mention the foulness of atmosphere thus engendered. The nest 



BREEDING. 89 

of kittens can also, while the mother is off to partake of her meals, 
&c.y be examined, for now and again dead or imperfect ones are 
bom that must be removed as early as possible. Unnecessary 
handling must be avoided, but the number of kittens, if large, can 
with advantage be reduced even at this early period by destroying 
the most imperfect in markings, tortoise-shell excepted, which it is 
generally desirable to retain. 

At about the ninth day the kittens' eyes open, and in a short 
time they will take a little warm milk, the advantage of which is 
dealt with in the chapter on " Feeding." Up to two months no 
kittens should be weaned, and those intended to make exhibition 
cats should be left with mother or foster-mother at least a month 
longer, in fact, so long as she can be induced to suckle them. 
There are several reasons why this course should be adopted, but 
most important of all is the natural warmth and equally natural 
food the kittens obtain from their parent or nurse. Those cats, 
therefore, which suckle their young for a considerable period 
should be proportionately prized by their owners. It is surprising 
what a lengthy period some cats remain in milk, especially those of 
a commoner and cross-bred variety^ and as there is no difficulty in 
transferring highly-bred kittens to foster-mothers, several of 
these common cats should be kept in view at about the period the 
valuable ones are due to kitten. Tou will, of course, have these 
nurse cats on your own premises, or under your immediate super- 
vision. 

Each cat having kittened, and two or three days elapsed for 
them to suckle their young, proceed to reduce the foster-mother's 
litter, for they generally have more in proportion to highly-bred 
cats. 

At times, however, the reverse is the case ; therefore several 
nurses should litter at the same period, so that the whole of your 
valuable kittens. Long-haired ones especially, can be reared. Do 
not transfer all at once, but if you want them to develop early, and 
into grand specimens at a month, leave two only on each mother 
or nurse. 



40 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

Another advantage of having foster-cats is, that while it enables 
you to exhibit your prize specimens, it also gives the additionally 
important feature of increasing your stud with kittens that will 
command ready sale if you occupy anything like a position in 
prize lists at exhibitions. In no case, however, remove all the 
kittens from your prize cat till she has suckled them for a fort- 
night ; the best method, if you intend to use foster-mothers, is to 
transfer, and leave a couple of these common kittens on your 
prize cats for that period. It is also desirable, as soon as she comes 
again in season, to put her to stud, so that your annual stock may 
be well in hand during the spring of the year, for remember that 
those kittens that are to develop into £ne specimens must have 
the summer to mature in. 

Before passing on to the best selections for crossing and breeding 
the various varieties, a few words as to stud cats otherwise than 
your own are desirable. There is pedigree and pedigree stock, and 
while not for a moment casting the slightest innuendo on stud 
advertisements, I cannot too strongly advise where a cross is needed 
in this direction, to make assurance doubly sure by seeing for 
yourself if possible. I have had occasion lately to inspect more 
than one, which if by charity they could be considered to be what 
they professed to be on paper, revealed such ** overtaxed wrecks " 
that there could be no reasonable prospect of obtaining kittens 
worth rearing. The National Gat Club is supplying a want under 
this head. 

To produce and -perfect any given variety or varieties of fancy 
cats can be aptly described as the science of breeding. Here the 
fancier asserts his skill, and according to the application brought 
to bear, so will the result be proportionately attained. I have on 
more than one occasion, in journals which deal with the subject, 
asserted that the great reason why certain varieties of fancy cats do 
not breed true, and that why certain " difficult " specialities cannot 
be obtained, lies in the fact that the uncontrolled has entered far too 
much as an agent in the great problem of breeding coupled with a 
want of direction in the crosses essential to obtain given results. 



BREEDING. 41 

There is probably no variety that stands ont so prominently in 
this respect as the tortoiseshell torn, and it will not be out of 
place to refer to the efforts of Mr. W. J. Nicholls (the late 
esteemed editor of the Stock-keeper) to produce males of this 
▼ariety, at the time he so successfully bred and exhibited red 
Tabbies, when the queen cats of that colour were so exceptionally 
scarce. His modus operandi was as follows : 

" A red Tabby female coming in season, for obvious reasons I 
confined her in a hutch, and in duo course introduced a pei'fect 
Black male, without a single white hair on his body, and possessing 
rich golden-coloured eyes. From this pair I had four splendidly 
marked sandy-red toms, one of which was invincible at the Crystal 
Palace, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and many other shows, 
winning first prizes for several years in succession. Also in the 
same litter I had a very good tortoise-shell she-cat, proving the 
mating was correct to a great extent. I continued to breed in- 
and-in for a considerable period, but up to the time of discontinu- 
ing my experiments had not succeeded in obtaining the male 
tortoise-shell.'^ 

This matter was much discussed among catty people, and I held 
an opinion that had the original been a thoroughbred tortoise-shell 
she, it is just possible a tom of the desired colour would have been 
bred. Another factor in the breeding would be to have the age 
vary. I should recommend a young blmck male cat, one by 
preference bred from a self-colour strain from two or three genera- 
tions, mated to a tortoise-shell, or if not, a tortoise-shell and 
white, at least two years older, and I should especially reserve 
any males bred from such a cross, pairing them to any tortoise- 
shell females bred in the previous litters by same sire, or even 
mating a black or any other perfectly self-coloured male with a 
tortoise-shell female in the same litter. The result of these 
crosses will indicate to the intelligent fancier further crosses 
and especially further breeding-in; but when once points of 
importance are obtained, take care not to introduce outside strains, 
although they may appear in outward semblance ^he ideal of what 

D 



42 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

is required. And with it all, keep well to the front the fact that 
the tortoise-shell is a combination of red, yellow, and black 
patches, with the colours perfectly broken, not running into one 
another ; and as a special factor in breeding them, remember that 
no variety other than this colour must be introduced, unless yon 
have ample proof that they continually produce the three desired 
colours. 

One feature will be obvious to breeders, viz., the tortoise-shell 
distinctive patches, as distinguished from any striped or spotted 
Tabby markings. These latter should not be used if they can in 
any way be avoided. Bed Tabbies have long since been placed 
aside for breeding this colour, the strong markings (stripes) being 
so apt to appear in subsequent litters, especially on the face. The 
establishment of a strain of tortoise-shells, especially males, will 
doubtless be a slow process. A somewhat similar difficulty existed 
with tortoise-shell cavies, which has been overcome by scientific 
application of the breeder's art, and they now breed true and to 
perfection in markings and colour. If there were no difficulties to 
surmount, there could not possibly be any credit in attaining 
excellence, and in breeding this variety, crossing, in-breeding, and 
thus concentrating, on the lines I have indicated, we shall doubt- 
less, if coupled with the essential patience, ultimately solve the 
problem of the production of tortoise-shell toms. 

The breeding of Short-hair Tabbies, especially to reach a high 
standard of perfection, will need careful observation. Many that 
we meet in the show-pen fail in width and distribution of the 
markings of either the striped or the spotted kind. It must be 
remembered that the ground-colour gives each variety its name, 
and also that it must be always somewhat wider than the darker 
stripes, but not to exaggeration ; or the resulting cat will present 
a bald appearance in its markings, especially in the lighter 
varieties. The stripes should occupy about one-third less than 
the ground-colour, though this is again subservient to which 
colour is under consideration. The value of a specimen will 
then, naturally, depend on both these contrasting colours being 



BREEDING. 43 

evenly balanced so as to give distinctness and character to each 
variety. 

One great failing of marked cats is the cloudy nature of their 
definitions, giving a smudgy appearance, as though the colours run 
into one another. '^ Sharp and distinct '' represents what the 
typical tabby markings should be in a first-class specimen. 

Opinions differ as to which colour in a mixed class of tabbies 
should have preference, and where each breeder will naturally 
have a strong attachment to that which he has made his study, it 
is somewhat invidious to particularise. The Short-haired silver 
tabby is, however, always considered a cat of value ; whether from 
the strong contrast of its markings, by which defects are the more 
readily observed, or from a greater diflBiculty in breeding up to it. 
I need not attempt to decide, the pros and cons on the matter being 
many and the balance of tunning even. In breeding for this variety 
it is usual to mate a good marked she with a male strong in 
markings ; while, if ground-colour is not clear, a thoroughbred 
whole-coloured Silver can be used to cross, again employing the 
strong marked male to the subsequent progeny; but never on 
any account cross with tabby of another colour. 

The smooth red Tabby is another attractive colour with markings 

of a deeper red. Some years since queen cats of the breed were 

hardly ever to be met with, while even now strongly defined 

markings are none too prominent in the variety generally. A 

trace of white is too often observable. On the National Cat Club, 

however, coming into existence, a much greater study was made in 

the science of cat breeding. Glasses at shows on more extended 

lines have been established, and they are now judged by those 

who really understand the subject, therefore each variety is 

sure to improve; especially when it is clearly laid down what 

has to be bred up to. In breeding red Tabbies the great point is 

to use a male especially strong in markings, and if necessary to 

cross the progeny with their sire. Self-colours have not been 

used to advantage in improving the definition of the markings of 

this variety. 

D 2 



44 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

To the other shades of colour, such as yellow and chocolate 
Tabbies, similar remarks apply. 

Another difficult cat to breed is the blue Tabby with the blue 
markings of a darker colour well defined. I have seen a few only, 
but like any variety that has markings of the same colour, though 
of different shades, they need much care in selection of breeding 
stock. The usual blue Tabby has a light ground-colour, though, 
like rabbits known as blue, they have a decidedly slate-blue shade. 
The markings should be a decided blue black ; for if the definition 
is not perfect, a blurred appearance results. 

The difficulty in breeding blue is to avoid the brown shade. A 
well-defined and strongly-marked silver may bo used to advantage 
to give the character markings, recrossing with blue to restore 
ground-colour, though some grey Tabbies vnll probably appear 
among the litters ; but as ultimately classes for each colour in 
Tabbies will probably become a rule at exhibitions, these will be a 
source of advantage and profit. 

Perhaps one of the richest in colour and most ^' comfortable " 
of Tabbies is the brown. The ground-colour should be especially 
a bright fine brown in shade, while markings of a dense black 
must be observed in a good representative. Selection of a stud 
cat with reliable pedigree will be found best for breeding, observing 
that his markings are dis^ctive, and, unlike some 1 knoV, 
entirely devoid of rustiness, which shows strong traces of the r0d 
Tabby, used at times, and if with due care perhaps advan- 
tageously, to improve the ground-colour. By recrossing with a 
strongly-marked Tabby male, this can be bred out ; but it is some- 
times a slow process, for the red has an unpleasant habit of 
cropping up when and where it is least wanted. 

Self-coloured cats, though they do not give the fancier trouble 
in markings, need especial care in selection if the ultimate object 
to be attained is a high position in prize-list at exhibitions. Black, 
White, Blue, Grey, and Bed are the chief colours, the first three 
being those principally known. The Blue is generally accepted as 
the premier pet of self -colours, and we have two breeds, *^ Kussian " 



BREEDINa 45 

and " English," as representatives , the Bussian being especially 
esteemed. 

As I have previously remarked, the Blue is of a light slate- 
colour, and according to the brightness and lustre of its tint, and 
absence of any rusty shade, so does its value increase in importance. 
A lengthy experience in breeding this colour, especially with 
rabbits, induces me to emphasise the importance of keeping thiiF 
colour clear of any other except black or white.,, though personally 
I should prefer selections of blue only for mating, having lighter 
or darker parents as the case necessitates. The quality of coat 
must also have due consideration, for there is no variety, breed, or 
colour that excels the peculiar softness and shortness of the Blue. 

Blacks or Whites can be crossed to obtain either of these 
colours, only remember the White must be spotless and the Black 
must be a black with no trace of greyness or white hairs. 
Remember also that size in the Black in a sine qud non. 

Passing on to the breeding of the different varieties of foreign 
Long-haired cats, it wiU not be out of place to again refer to 
quality, quantity, and distribution of coat, as against markings, 
minus the former qualihcations of the breeds. I yield t6 no one 
in appreciating markings in these varieties, providing they are 
supported by proper length of coat, frill, and brush ; but that 
those markings have been obtained by crossing Short-haired cats 
is only too apparent, apart from the fact that I know those who 
have thus produced them. With this digression, it will be as well 
to point out that markings in Long-haired cats, obviously owing to 
the length and nature of coats, are not so defined as in the Short- 
haired breeds ; but in pairing for this particular feature, the 
various recommendations equally apply. There are, however, 
other recognised colours among the Long-haired varieties; the 
V>lae> chinchilla, and smoke, the former especially, as in Bussian 
Short-hair blue, being much esteemed. They have probably the 
finest, quality of fur of any, and generally are a more affectionate 
cat than some varieties of Persians and other Long-hairs. But 
care should be exercised by the uninitiated iu approaching all 



46 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

Long-haired cats, and, in fact, cats generally ; a pair of leather 
gloves should be worn on all occasions when handling them. 

In breeding Chinchilla, the pedigree of the stud cat should be 
thoroughly reliable, and, if possible, the kittens he has been sire 
of should be seen. I am assuming that similar care has already 
been exercised in selecting your queens. On no account cross 
with either red, brown, or marked cats of any colour, though 
many fbiBt-class specimens of this variety exhibit a trace of mark- 
ings. A blue Chinchilla is the best male to select, or, if the 
kittens moult out too light, a smoke-blue should be used ; but 
avoid any with a rusty tinge. No cats should be bred with or 
from while changing coat ; so that any rustiness usually assumed 
at the critical period of moult is not important, neither are the 
remarks as to colour intended to apply to them. Blacks or 
Whites, as in the Short-haired varieties, can be safely bred 
together. The clear blue is also best mated to one of its own 
colour, and is one of the finest varieties of Long-haired cats. 
With regard to Angora cats, Kussians, and those of other nation- 
alities, the same remarks are equally applicable. 

Of Long-haired Tabbies, the silver and brown are equally hand- 
some varieties, especially when the markings and coloor stand 
well out. They, as do the majority of Tabbies of each colour, 
come under the heading of Persians (the Russian excepted) ; 
though self -colours, or nearly so, have for generations been the 
actual representatives of the country with which at least the 
name is associated. 

I have already dealt with mating for the production of colour 
and markings, and a few remarks on the type of coat will complete 
all that is necessary to be advanced. A stud cat should especially 
excel in length of coat throughout ; the frill, a most important 
feature in Long-haired cats, should bo full on chest, extending well 
round the head, and free from ragged edges. The tail, '* brush " 
it is usually called, must be large, perfect, and exceedingly bushy. 
The legs, somewhat shorter than the Smooth variety, should be 
well furnished in length of fur, extending over and well between 



BREEDING. 49 

the toes ; and the pads of the feet should be large and folly 
developed. 

In addition to the general varieties of both Long and Short 
hair, we have these in each with white markings. Black or blue 
are the most suitable colours, though Tortoise-shell and White, 
and the various Tabbies and White have many admirers. To 
breed, a male must be selected that is perfect in the required 
markings, which generally consist of an angular blaze on face, a 
lozenge-shaped marking downwards on chest, and white tips to 
the four feet. If the white markings extend too far, or spots 
on what should otherwise be whole colour appear, a perfect self- 
coloured stud cat can be used with advantage. 

To breed the Spotted variety, those most uniform in spots must 
be selected, any trace of bars or stripes being against the 
specimen, while the nearer perfection of spots, especially as they 
approach head markings, is attained, the nearer progress to one of 
the most valuable of broken-colour cats. A self-colour of the 
proper ground can, with care, be used to correct uneven ground- 
colour, and once the colour of spots has been used advantageously 
to make them uniform ; but with either, the spotted male must 
intervene between any such cross. As a rule, however, a spotted 
male, as near as possible perfect in markings, will produce the 
best results. 

The Royal Cat of Siam can only be properly bred by crosses of 
its own variety. Experiments have been tried with a view to 
introducing another colour other than the characteristic dun, but 
any deviation from the pure typical breed will, I opine, not be 
generally cared for, if for no other reason than its being incorrect. 

The Abyssinian is another variety that cannot be readily 
manufactured. Fanciers cannot do better than secure specimens 
of this breed, and preserve its black markings by selection, 
especially as they breed fairly true to points. 

With the Manx cat the same rule applies as to colour and 
markings as I have referred to with Tabbies and self -colours ; it is 
hardly necessary to remark that no other variety than the 



go SOHESTia OK rAHOY CATS. 

breed na^rally mmui tail mnrt be xaeA either in breeding 
or crossing. 

For any further details that the breeder may need, reference to 
the chapter on " Varieties and their CharacteciBticB " will donbtluas 
■npply in detail any point omitted in this ; while application of 
the earlier notea of the present chapter on the various conditioDs 
that bear on the science of breeding mnst be observed, concurrent 
with the instructions of otossing and breeding for the many 
typical colours and markings that are now recognised under tha 
name of "fancy cats." 



CHAPTEa IV. 

1 KITTENS. 

k LTHOUGH the two preceding chapters contain the 
needful information on the production of, and the beat 
and most approved methods and condition 
of keeping, kittens, there are a few features 
in the juvenile period of their existence 
which deserve to be separately dealt with. The success of the 
future cat, whatever its sphere is destined to be, wUl in a measuie 
depend on ils earlier training, housii^, feeding, and general super- 
vision by those who have its care in hand. I refer to training 
again, in order to emphasise the importance of inducii^ cleanliness 



62 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

from the earliest period that Idttens can leave their nest. Warmth 
is naturally very important, and should receive due attention ; but 
by training kittens at feeding times to leave their comfortable 
quarters, and turn out in a run such as described, or in the garden 
or any suitable enclosure, the habit thus early engendered is soon 
established, and all trouble as to cleanliness is a thing of the past. 
Of course, this means a certain amount of attention, but the true 
fanciers, who love their pets, will consider it a duty to be efficiently 
done ; while others who do not care to put themselves to any extra 
trouble should leave the taking-up of any fancy to those who have 
the essentials of patience and consideration. 

At what age should kittens cease to be regarded as such ? This 
is a point that should be clearly defined and answered by those 
who intend to breed for exhibition. I have often wondered, when 
criticising or judging cats at shows, either at the audacity or else 
at the want of a clear understanding on the part of some 
exhibitors as to when kittenhood ceases and gives place to the 
developed cat. It is my invariable practice when judging to make 
these extraordinary ^' kittens " (?) pay the penalty of disquali- 
fication, for nothing is more unfair than that the owners of legiti- 
mate specimens should be beaten by exhibits whose proper place is 
in the open cat classes. As in other animals, the teeth are the chief 
guide in deciding age. With kittens the period between four and 
six months is when the adult dental process is completed, and 
certainly after that the term " kitten " is erroneously applied and 
misleading. Although the remarks of some — as to how their 
specimens have reached early maturity either by certain feeding, 
by capital mothers, or by some special management — may be well 
and good, yet the classes for kittens were never intended for 
aught but what common sense dictates. 

Of the various stages of the cat's existence, that of kittenhood 
is the most charming and interesting. Frolic and fun is the kitten's 
only consideration, and all anxiety as to a prospective future is as 
yet unknown. It is at this period, however, that its owner, while 
acknowledging the sensitive appreciation of any act of kindness — 



KITTENS. 53 

aiid there is no animal in existence more sensitive and capable of 
attachment than the domestic cat or any of her progeny — shapes 
out its intended sphere. One of the most noticeable features in the 
mani^ement of cats is how in maturity they reflect their earlier 
discipline, and the offspring will, in a great measure, depend on how 
the parents have been trained, fed, and housed. Bom with an 
instinct and ability at an early age to i>btain their own living, 
it is but natural, unless otherwise taught, that a thievish tendency 
will develop ; but gentle correction so soon as this is observed will, 
in a short time, if coupled with regular feeding at proper intervals, 
entirely overcome any such vice. 

Those who wish their cats to add amusement to the domestic 
circle, will find willing actors easy of instruction in their kittens. 
So soon as they are well on their feet it is the time when training 
should commence ; one of the most usual tricks is jumping, at which 
a cat is facile princes. Beginning with the hands held near the 
ground, and with some attractive device such as a cotton reel attached 
by string and suspended swinging a few feet from you, smooth the 
kitten down and then join hands in such a position that she cannot 
escape except over them. This once done, the rest is plain sailing ; 
thei hands go higher until she jumps over whatever may be held, 
whatever the elevation. It is not necessary to introduce the 
numerous acts and tricks which cats can be taught ; everyone is 
acquainted with cats' specialities in this direction. All can be 
accomplished with kindness, perseverance, training from early age, 
and the never-failing acknowledgment by its owner with a tit-bit 
morsel for a reward when the animal has successfully achieved 
your desired object. 

Before concluding the remarks specially concerning kittens, 1 
wish, although our lady friends will not perhaps accept the advice 
with full approval, to direct attention to a practice somewhat on 
the increase. I refer to the decoration of the little pets with ribbons 
and collars. Probably these garnitures are looked upon as pretty, 
and, like similar embellishments of the fair sex, may be regarded 
by some as a pleasing innovation ; further, with Short-haired kittens 



54 DOMESTIC OE FANCY OATS. 

the fur iB not much affected. But the LoDg-haiied varieties often 
have their neck-fnt and ruff seriously injured by the friction of 
these toilet novelties, and the proper training and development of 
those important features, especially when developing from kitten- 
hood to the matnie cat is thereby endangered. 



CHAPTER V. 

NURSE CATS. 

I mportance and utility of bringiiig np the whole of a 
litter of vsloftble cats u natnTally of great importance 
to the Buocesrful exhibitor. It ia eiceedingly gratifying 
to find oneself the recipient of mone; prizes, 
and to note the cabinet <x sideboard become 
gradnally filled with specials, of more or lem value. It is not, 
however, to either of these sources that the exhibitor looks for 
profit, or even to recoup the necessary ontlay that is incurred on 
account of carriage, entry-fees, and the many other items that 
swell the account in asBociation with ahows. According to the 



68 DOMESTIC OB FAITGY CATS. 

extent of the breeding-stud and the accommodation, so will a few 
more additions be added to the bill ; and although with a great 
many breeders and exhibitors expense is no particular consideration, 
it is always a satisfactory feature in the abstract to find a happy 
combination of pleasure and profit resulting from any undertaking. 

It is thus according to your success as an exhibitor that the 
demand and great source of profit comes in : by the sale of kittens 
of value ; winning cats ; and cats fit for show, but which perhaps 
have not yet earned their exhibition laurels. And when I state 
that two to five guineas is no unusual price for an untried kitten — 
though, of course, of a good prize-winning strain — it will be at once 
apparent that a practical fancier may make a large margin of profit. 

But breeding kittens and the development of them, especially 
those intended for exhibition specimens, need the removal of your 
queen cats from the charmed circle of the show pen for a consider- 
able period. It will therefore be at once apparent how desirable 
it is, if possible, to relieve them from their maternal duties within 
a few days of littering. It is here that the nurse cat appears on 
the scene, and undertakes the duties that belong to its sex in a 
much higher order in society. 

According to the extent of your stud so will the supply and 
demand of these eminently useful adjuncts to the cattery be 
regulated. When nurse cats are not kept on your own premises, 
it is very desirable to keep in touch with a large circle of " catty " 
friends, in order to be able to obtain any number of nurses that 
may be needed. 

The process of transferring the kittens from the mother to the 
foster-mother, the method of reducing the number to be kept on 
each foster-mother, and other minor details, will be found in the 
chapter on " Breeding." 

Finally, remember that whereas three or four of the Short-haired 
varieties can be brought up on one nurse or on their own mother, 
not more than two of the Long-haired breed of kittens should 
be reared on their mother or nurse, as the growing fur is readily 
retarded or damaged by over-crowding. 



CHAPTER VI. 

FEEDING. 



OSg^^l^^Si— 'HATEVER Tiewa may be entertained with 

■HIWiV regard to the various oosdltiona for breeding and 

Ik^leff housing, but one exista in placing feeding as a highly 

(j^S^S^^ important section of the cat-fancier's programme. 

On the inbject of foods, however, we are met with 

much divetaity of opinion, each naturally praising the partionlar 

food and method of feeding with which he has been successful. 

And although it is my intention to place before the reader the 

reasons for, or against, the several articles of food, both solid 

and otherwise, which form the cats' daily dietary advanced 



60 DOMESTIC OB FA^CY CAT& 

by me, it will be in the spirit of direction rather than that 
of dictation. 

Whatever the description of food given and the mode and periods 
of feeding adopted, winners cannot be made out of poor stock. 
Many people who visit exhibitions are too apt to consider that 
some occult method of feeding and rearing, or some other hidden 
process, contributes to the success of the exhibit. Nothing is 
further from the fact. Success is the result of a proper study of 
the points and conditions, of which this work gives full details ; 
and according to the application, so will be the results achieved. 
The " application " is important. We know fuU well that some 
fanciers, with the best of stock and all the essential conditions for 
successful rearing and feeding, never show their stock in good 
condition ; while others, with only limited resources, never turn 
their specimens out except in the picture of health and show form. 
We have in the latter the practical application, and under any 
conditions such fanciers always succeed. 

The cat's dietary of solid and liqui^ food consists of meat, fish, 
vegetables, milk, beef -tea, and water, which we will take consecu- 
tively. Meat includes most varieties of animals or birds, beef, 
liver and horse-flesh forming with many the staple food. Cooked 
meat which comes under the category of '' birds," may be regarded 
as superfluous ; but it is excellent food if given raw, so long as the 
birds are only just killed and from healthy stock. In fact, the 
question of raw against cooked foods is without doubt a subject 
that needs the fancier's earnest consideration. We are all 
acquainted with the fact that raw meat, especially beef, is of 
immense power in developing growing kittens and sustaining full 
grown cats ; in a similar manner the large breeds of poultry are 
brought to early maturity and development. But while to the 
latter its freshness is not of much importance, with kittens or cats 
it must be of the freshest. From the large number of queries in 
respect of cat ailments submitted to me continually through 
The Bazaar y and from information derived from other sources, I 
have no hesitation in advancing as a fact that nearly one half of 



FEEDIKQ. 61 

the diseases — especially the increasing number of worm cases — are 
due to raw meat (and uncooked food), given in an advanced state 
of decomposition. Another fruitful source of disease is horse-flesh. 
It hardly seems necessary to remind readers, how a considerable 
quantity of the carcases of these useful quadrupeds find their way 
into the emporium of the purveyor of " cat's meat." A piece of 
good hoise-flesh, when a really healthy animal has had to be killed 
through accident^ may be all right enough ; but until veterinary 
supervision intervenes between the diseased carcase and its subse- 
quent retailing as food for cats, too much trust should not be 
placed on it for the commissariat department. Apart also from 
this somewhat doubtful recommendation, personally I consider 
that at the best horse-flesh is a "hungry" type of food. It has, 
perhaps, been given with some advantage when cats have gone off 
their feed, but as a rule no good show specimens have been brought 
up on it. 

Boiled liver is a good stimulating food, especially if varied with 
any meat scraps from the table ; in addition, your butcher will 
always select for a trifle the coarser parts of beef ; this should be 
boiled, and the resulting gravy poured over so much of the scraps, 
including the vegetable portions, as is necessary for the particular 
meal; it should be given warm, and will be found to advance 
the growth of both kittens (from two months old) and cats 
immensely. It is here that any remains of poultry or game by 
purchase or from table come in with a considerable amount of 
utility. 

Another important article of food is fish for at least one meal 
and for variety ; it is an absolutely essential feature with cats 
kept in semi-confinement. Tf meat should be fresh, then I must 
emphasise the need of fish being especially so. Many give it raw, 
and it is consumed with avidity ; but probably the best plan, so 
far as fish is concerned, is to vary the bill of fare, giving it alter- 
nately cooked and raw ; your fishmonger will supply you with the 
needful variety of fresh " cuttings " at a trifling cost, so that no 
alarming expense will be incurred under this needful head. 



62 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

In the case of cats that can ramble at their own sweet will 
through woods and fields, their natural instincts to hunt for food 
will supply them alike constitutionally and physically with all 
that is needful. Such cats hardly ever ail; but when brought 
into a cattery or when being got up for show, your poulterer must 
be requisitioned to supply you with heads and the coarser parts of 
birds. In fact, under any circumstances, these should form about 
twice a week a part of the cat's diet. You will, of course, contract 
that they must be fresh. According to circumstances, such food 
can either be given raw or cooked, for variation. 

Equal in importance to flesh of every description, are vegetable 
foods. Given any variety and variation of fish, meat, or birds, 
without a good proportion of vegetable diet, health of body and 
condition of coat cannot be attained or maintained. All vegetables 
used for domestic purposes can be given advantageously, and those 
who wish to build up cats from kittenhood to stand in good 
positions, and continue to hold their own at exhibitions, do not 
fail from the earliest period to induce the free eating of vegetables. 
These can be separately cooked, or those that have been dished up 
for the table and left can be mixed with the gravies produced 
according to previous instructions. 

I reserve for separate note the very great importance of grass. 
For health-giving properties, no combination of food or method of 
feeding can supply its place. Those who have lawns, or the grass 
runs as described in the chapter on " Houses, Runs, and Pens," 
are provided with this necessity ; otherwise, a small portion of 
the garden should be wired off, and well tnrfed or sown with 
grass, keeping it closed except for your cats' or kittens' daily run. 
Failing even this desideratum, bunches of grass — the longer the 
better — should be securely tied together and hung at a convenient 
height for the cat to nibble and scratch at. 

There is no more highly nutritious vegetable food, or one that 
has such special influence on quality of coat and development 
generally, than lentils. They are somewhat expensive compared 
with the other items of diet, but fanciers who can spare the out- 



FEEDIKO. 63 

lay,, should at least give them a trial. An early training to eat 
lentils is with some cats necessary, but once taken they look for 
more. It is necessary to soak them for a few hours, and then 
slowly boil till cooked. Lentils, with the meat scraps and gravy, 
will build up constitutions when other means have failed. 

Of the solid foods sold, and the various condiments, the least 
generally said the better. No combination of either is within 
measurable distance of the foods above mentioned, while some of 
it is simply rubbish ; the chief efforts of the vendors being the 
extraction of cash, that might be advantageously spent on sound 
and solid nutriment. The only exception that needs mention is, 
" Spratt's Cat Food." From experiment, and some knowledge of 
its preparation and qualifications, this can at least be recommended 
to cat-breeders for trial without risk of disadvantage to their 
stock, while so far as personal experience is concerned, it is very 
satisfactory. 

The liquid section of the cat's dietary embraces milk, which is 
probably the staple element of moist food, beef -tea, or the various 
gravies, and water. For kittens, milk is the all-important feature, 
and with cats generally it should form the first or early meal, 
and also the evening one. It should be given warm with about 
one-third of its bulk of water added. Bread should also be in- 
troduced, though some cats that take milk freely object to bread- 
and-milk. But mind, enough for them to clear up to the last 
particle only should be given. Kittens, according to age, at least 
up to three months, and whether weaned or not, must have their 
milk meals as a basis of feeding ; " little and fairly often " is the 
rule, reducing by one meal at once if they do not clear it up 
freely. For weakly kittens, or cats that are failing in health, or 
recovering from illness, beef -tea is a needful adjunct, together 
with the various gravies mentioned in the earlier part of this 
chapter. Here, again, the rule as to clearing up each meal must 
be observed, and arrangements made accordingly. 

" Bills of fare " for daily use are all very well on paper, but 
actual experience is the only guide with the specimens under your 



61 D0KE8TK) OB WAXCY CATS. 

obaervation and charge. Scarcely two cats feed alike ; and when 
1 add hoir health, age, and other conditions inflaence the appetite, 
it will bo at once obviotu that no strict bill of daily fare can be 
acted npoD. 

While giving definite iiutmctions that each meal shonld be 
taken with avidity and none left, there is in the remaining item, 
water, an exception to the above wholesome role. In the natural 
state of every living thing, water is as needful as it is important. 
With cats, nice stoneware earthen pans should be kept filled with 
water, and cleared out and re-charged several times during the 
day, according to temperature and conditions. 

Speaking generally, cats will require from two to four meals per 
day, bnt no hard-and-fast rule can be laid down unless the special 
circonutances under which they are kept are known. Breeders 
will have no difficulty in arriving at the needful times of feeding, 
and the kinds and quantities of food. In the all -important question 
of feeding, the chief points may be summarised aa follows: — (a) 
regularity; (h) x^^rfect cleanliness; (c) variety, 1.0., change of 
food ; (d) enough and no more at each meal ; and (e) while food 
must never be left, water must be continually supplied. 



PREPARiTION FOE EXmUITION. 

^ HE first care of the HuccesHful exhibitor is to enHQie the 
height of condition for their ahow cats while on view. 
Two reaaona often place an ejthibit in a mnoh lower 
position than it wonid othemiBo hara oc- 
cupied : First, its coat, eiipeciallf in the Long- 
haired Tarieties, may be dirty (if a white), or generally matted, or 
otherwise may present a dishevellad appearance through want of 
condition or grooming. Bear well in mind that condition means 
more points than actually appear under ita head, as this Tery 
feature influences eye, colour, and brilliancy of marking, to an 
extent only to be fully ^preciated when comparison is made at 
different periods. Secondly, probable winners faU to Bcore in 
priEe lists through their want of training for the exhibition pen. 
To point out the negative results which personal application 



66 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

has proved is a considerable advance towards their being remedied, 
and will tend to simplify the instructions. The chapters on 
<< Feeding " and " Diseases " cannot be too carefully perused ; but 
it is to obtaining condition of coat that my remarks are here 
directed. 

WASHING. — Of primary importance is washing, which, when 
done improperly, makes bad worse, but when thoroughly per- 
formed often works marvels in the appearance of specimens 
that are liable to have their coats injured by dirt, etc. The 
remarks that one hears at times as to washing spoiling the quality 
of the fur more often applies to the inefficient way in which some 
fanciers discharge the task. The fur of the cat, either Long- 
haired or Short, must obviously get soiled, and I have seen 
specimens turned out after proper washing almost with their 
previous self unrecognisable, so great has been the improvement. 
Assiduous as healthy cats are in attending to their toilet, when once 
thoroughly out of order they are very rarely equal to what the 
show pen demands. 

To e£fectually wash a cat, one great desideratum is patience. 
Armed with a plentiful supply, proceed to arrange two receptacles 
for water, having an attendant to assist in the various operations. 
To bath No. 1. — For every gallon of water at a temperature of 
ninety degrees add a quarter of a pound of fullers-earth, and a 
liberal supply of good yellow soap (I find Sunlight answers ad- 
mirably) ; mix this thoroughly. The next, and difficult part with 
a cat new to the arrangement, is to obtain the complete immersion. 
Coaxing and kindness are the only method. By complete 
immersion, 1, of course, refer to immersion of the body. Washing 
the head comes last. A sponge or soft brush are tools to be used 
judiciously, the hands forming the most important implements. 
With plenty of lather, beginning underneath, but always in a 
direction from neck to tail, straight, and downwards, work the 
accumulated dirt thoroughly away. Any matted parts are easily 
unravelled when softened with the soap-water and fullers-earth. 
As this will take quite an hour to perform, a little hot water must 



THE PERSIAN CAT. 



unr. 

As th! y « 



PBEPARATION FOR EXHIBITION. 69 

be occasionally added. Finishing the face upwards from nostrils 
and ears with the sponge will complete the washing. 

Your attendant will, meanwhile, have put in No. 2 bath (let it 
be large) sufficient water of the same temperature. Then, holding 
the cat firmly with both hands, rinse out as much soap as possible 
by raising her up and down in No. 1., and then thoroughly 
remove all that remains in the second bath. This being thoroughly 
accomplished, with a soft towel remove as much of the moisture 
as possible, in the same direction as observed in washing, and 
finally place the animal in a large poultry hamper containing a 
liberal supply of straw. It should remain in this basket in a 
warm room for some hours, as the heat assists the coat to assume 
its best appearance. Avoid any draught until the fur has 
thoroughly expanded. It is always as well, when washing is 
necessary, to let it be done at least two days before sending the 
cats off to the show, and of course, meanwhile, they must be kept 
under observation to prevent their coats from becoming soiled. 

TRAINING FOR THE SHOW PEN.— I need not remind old 
hands at exhibiting of the importance of this feature. The more 
recent recruits to the ranks of cat fanciers will, however, be in search 
of the various devices needful. On referring to the chapter on 
" Houses, Runs, and Pens " and the plan of the Cattery, on either 
side of the entrance hall will be found rows of pens of a similar 
size to those used at exhibitions. It is in these pens that the 
<< education " takes place. Begin daily before feeding-time, place 
the cats intended for the arena of open competition in these pens, 
and get them used to what at first will be durance vile ; encourage 
by coaxing, calling, and finally feeding them ; then allow them to 
remain for an hour, and gradually longer till they settle comfort- 
ably and will come to the front of the pen and receive the owner's 
caresses. Keep these pens scrupulously clean, and liberally 
supplied with sawdust. 

BOXES AND HAMPERS.— I have now come to another im- 
portant- section of the exhibition programme — sending to and from 
the show — and in what receptacle ? Pages could be filled with the 



70 DOMESTIC OR FANCY CATS. 

nmnerouB articles pressed into service, some as inhuman and an> 
suitable as others are ridiculous. Times innumerable have I 
mused, while journeying for judicial matters, on the thousand- 
and-one views that exhibitors thus send forth to the world 
embodied in their show boxes, hampers, or baskets. Often while 
witnessing the cramming in of these living freights in guards' 
vans, or the piling-up of them at junction or terminus, has the 
thought occurred to me how those who exercise such care, trouble, 
and anxiety with their valuable stud at home send their a-TiiTnala 
packed in boxes which are veritable coffins for the enclosed 
victims. As humanity is largely in the ascendant with cat exhi- 
bitors, it must be want of consideration or knowledge of these goings 
to and fro. Many accompany their specimens, and thus reduce the 
risk to a minimum, but if the following details are observed, no 
fear need be entertained of safety, constitutionally, during transit. 
To avoid draughts and yet obtain for exhibits en route plenty 
of air is the desideratum. Many exhibitors use baskets, whose 
convenience and lightness, an important item in railway carriage, 
are desirable points for consideration. If used for seiiding without 
personal attendance, let fhem be large, deep, oval or round, and 
lined with American cloth, leaving a free ventilation well above 
the heads of the inmates. A safe depth is twenty inches. In the 
rim of the lid provision can be made for a perfect current of air, 
while the inner top of the lid should be lined with the same 
material as the sides, in order to effectually prevent wet of any 
kind from obtaining access. In order to prevent contagious 
influence in your stud, see that these baskets (that mix with others 
at shows) are frequently scalded, diluted carbolic acid being freely 
used for a final rinse. To the credit of baskets or hampers I may 
add, a case of death occurring through their use for forwarding 
exhibits to show has seldom come under my own observation, nor 
do I remember an accident of this character being reported. 
Baskets are also less liable to damage by the railway officials' 
varied rendering of " with care " though, owing I suppose to a know- 
ledge of the revenue derived from exhibition sources, railway 



PREPARATION FOR EXHIBITION. 71 

companies are now giving the safety of, and proper attention 
to, the exhibits entrusted to their charge a far closer supervision. 

There is, however, a security about properly-constructed travel- 
ling-boxes that will commend them to many exhibitors. The 
following dimensions should be observed for a full-grown cat of 
the Long-haired variety : length, twenty inches ; depth, fourteen 
inches ; height, twenty inches. 

The lid should have entirely round its rim a row of one-inch 
holes, and one inch apart ; over these and outside a piece of per- 
forated zinc should be nailed, which will prevent too much curiosity 
in transit, or injury to the cat. These boxes should have iron 
bands at the comers, if not dove-tailed, and in place of a lock 
(the key of which is often lost or mislaid at shows, thus causing 
delay) use strong straps fixed with screws to the box. A couple 
of stout handles will complete the exhibition cat box. 

The objection urged against boxes is that owing to their favour- 
able shape they get packed close together on rail, etc., thus exclud- 
ing air from the inmates. Some breeders may recollect that I 
brought this matter prominently forward about ten years ago, 
when a large number of rabbits consigned to a particular show had 
been suffocated in transit. 1 suggested that fixing blocks of wood 
or having fixed haiidles (as above) at the sides would have obviated 
all loss or danger thus arising, and I am pleased to find on the 
large majority of hampers, baskets, or boxes that some such 
adaptation is gradually being observed by exhibitors. 

For Short-haired cats or single kittens a smaller box can, of 
course, be used, but by observing the various details and instruc- 
tions given above, the condition of show specimens can be main- 
tained, and all risk in transit to and from exliibitions thus reduced 
to a minimum 




CHAPTER VIII. 



k HE domeatication of cats, aa with birds and sjumala 
generallf , hj Temoving them from their natural condi- 
tiona, where iiiBtiiiotively they obtain all things es- ' 
aeutial to their maintenance, brings a legacy 
in the shape of various diseases, which sooner 
or later breeders and keepers have to make themselves acquainted 
with, and provide against. 

It is not my intention to pose aa an aJarmiBt, or to introdnce an 
unnecessary category of ailments to which the feline race are 
susceptible ; bat as it has been my province for some considerable 
period to advise on all matters, disaaaea and otherwise, pertaining 
to cats in The Baxaar and elsewhere, I haTO had a varied experienoe 
on the subject, and particularly on many varieties of ailments that 
are not usually observed or anticipated. 



DISEASES. 73 

There is not the slightest doubt that the bulk of cat diseases 
belong to the class ^* preventable/' and especially in fancy cats do 
they arise from want of sufficient exercise, undue exposure at shows, 
over and improper feeding, and want of proper sanitation. These 
neglected conditions soon develop disease, and it is painful to note 
the delay that occurs from the time symptoms of disease are re- 
vealed before the owners make efforts to alleviate suffering. 
Prevention is, in every sense, preferable to cure, but, failing 
this, ^' a stitch in time " unquestionably saves the proverbial 
« nine." 

The principal ailments are distemper, mange, eczema and other 
skin diseases, parasites, ulcers, colds, inflammation of the ear, 
catarrhal ophthalmia, bronchitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, fits, inflam- 
mation of the stomach, worms, paralysis, etc. It will thus be seen 
that in catteries of considerable importance, a hospital where cases 
can be isolated is an essential feature. 

To administer medicine to cats, simply mixing with food is not 
generally efficacious. An assistant is useful to hold the cat, all 
four feet of which for security should be previously enveloped in a 
wrapper. Having the medicine ready, with the thumb and fore- 
finger of your left hand open its mouth, in the usual manner of 
examining the jaws of animals from the back ; you can then ad- 
minister the mixture with ease. Bemember a teaspoonful is as 
much as a cat can conveniently swallow at once, so a larger dose 
must be given by degrees. 

DISTEMPER.— This complaint is getting far too prevalent 
among cats ; neglected conditions, such as cold, generate it and 
frequently communicate the infection to healthy cats. The 
• symptoms which generally indicate distemper are : no appetite, 
unusual loss of flesh, giddiness, thirst, extremities hot and cold in 
turns, sneezing, cough, and discharges from nose and eyes, which, 
as the disease continues, form a mucous covering that is highly 
infectious. The bowels may be constipated, but looseness is more 
usual. 

Isolate the cat at once in a room free from draughts, and with 

p 



74 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CAXa 

warm water sponge any accumulated mucua away, freely bathing 
the parts with a mixture of Oondy's fluid, one drachm ; warm 
water, one pint ; this should be repeated so soon as a further 
accumulation appearsT^^As medicine, giye for a full-grown cat one 
drop of tincture of aconite In milk, followed in two hours with one 
drop of the homoeo^thic solution of arsenic ; in the same order 
continue this treatment three times a day, for three days, and 
afterwards once a day till improvement is apparent. In cases where 
the constitution has been impaired by the severity of the attack, 
continue for a fortnight (longer if necessary) to give a dessert- 
spoonful thrice daily of the following mixture: Tincture of 
cinchona bark, one ounce ; water, one pint. This is at all times 
a useful medicine for cats, especially those with debilitated 
constitutions. 

Nourishing foods must be given for distemper, as soon 
as the patient can take them, strong beef-tea being about 
the best. Finally, in bad cases of this complaint a thorough 
bath with Oondy's fluid diluted according to the instructions, 
and separate advice is desirable before restoring the cat to asso- 
ciate with others. Perfect cleanliness must be observed, all 
excretions being immediately removed, and straw bedding fre- 
quently renewed and burned. 

MANGE, ECZEMA, AND OTHER SKIN DISEASE.— 
Although, unfortunately, there are a variety of skin diseases, which 
neglected cats quickly inherit and spread contagion, the treatment of 
these generally will be sufficiently met by dealing with mange and 
eczema, which are often confounded under one heading. Mange is a 
parasitic disease of a grey scaly character and highly contagious. 
Eczema is the result of highly inflamed and disordered blood, and 
differs from mai^ge inasmuch as the eruptions, which usually first 
aflectthe limbs, are small, closely packed, and discharge a watery 
fluid, which has the property of stiflening when dried any linen or 
, article used for its absorption. In bad cases, eczema spreads over the 
entire body, is most irritating to the animal, and takes months to 
properly cure. It is also somewhat hereditary, so breeders will do 



DISEASES. 75 

well in keeping as clear as possible from any cats liable to ecsema. 
To deal with either complaint, the primary feature is thorough 
washing, especially the eruptions, in water at 100 deg. to which 
carbonate of soda (half an ounce to the gallon) has been added, 
using carboljc soap freely. After drying, if not a very bad case, 
dress each place with sulphur ointment, which repeat twice a day 
for a week ; an intermediate wash being an assistance. Bad cases 
are treated with mercurial ointment, which is however dangerous 
in application, a mixture for cats being, green iodide of mercury 
four grains, lard one ounce, well incorporated together and effec- 
tually rubbed in the affected parts. Sulphuric acid ointment 
is another powerful agent. A useful treatment for this disease 
is a mixture of creosote one part, olive oil six parts. Well mix and 
add one part of strong solution of caustic soda ; apply twice a 
week. For eczema, carbolic-acid ointment is desirable, especially 
during the discharges. It must be used with great care, however, 
and be well rubbed in. An excellent lotion that should be used 
three times a day, is composed of water, one pint; Qoulard's 
extract of lead, eighty grains ; Wright's solution of coal-tar, half- 
an-ounce. Where there is much irritation, bismuth ointment is 
also of great value. Washing frequently with warm soft water 
and carbolic soap wiU do much to hasten recovery. 

The fur, which should have been clipped away from the parts 
affected by the disease, will, after its eradication, need a little 
treatment to fix and promote i£e growth. Boracic-acid ointment 
should be applied three times a day till the surface of the skin 
resumes its natural condition, and the use of glycerine should then 
be continued at the same periods, to prevent looseness of coat. To 
cause the fur to thicken and develop, the following is an excellent 
ointment : Oil of rosemary, one dracjim ; tincture of cantharides, 
fifty grains ; vaseline, one ounce. This should be rubbed well into 
the roots twice daily. 

Thus far, outward applications have been dealt with. Cooling 

medicines are the essential features to be administered in each 

case. 1 have found six grains each of Epsom salts and magnesia 

F 2 



76 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CAT& 

given three timeB a day, very useful in this respect. And, as a 
variation, using the same quantity of flowers of sulphur in place of 
Epsom salts. In bad cases, however, arsenic may be needed, 
in which case, give one drOp of Fowler's solution of arsenic on 
alternate days with the sulphur and magnesia. Liberal feeding 
will be imperative, and my remarks on the advantage of grass irons 
especially apply to cats suffering with these complaints. 

PARASITES. — These pests do not appear on well-kept cats 
unless they are in failing health, in which case the cure of the 
disease will provide a certain remedy. It is, of course, desirable, 
especially when coming from shows, to see that the animals have 
no insects upon them. In any case the free use of pyrethrum 
powder, known by various names, one kind of which is sold in tins 
with perforated lids by Keating, will prevent any trouble arising 
under this heading. All bedding while in use should have a 
sprinkling of the powder. 

ULCERS. — These are not nearly of such frequent occurrence as 
skin disease. When such appear, if constitutional, give daily one drop 
of Fowler's solution of arsenic for a fortnight, followed by six 
grains of flowers of sulphur on alternate days. The ulcers must 
be bathed and dressed with zinc ointment till healed, after which 
use vaseline or glycerine to obtain soundness of fur. 

COLDS. — The foundation of the greater part of complaints that 
cats are affected with must be taken in time. Warmth and com- 
fortable housing till the symptoms disappear, are Nature's best 
restoratives. To treat, administer every hour for a day, one drop 
of camphor in half a teaspoonful of water. The usual remedy is 
aconite if the earliest period is taken from treatment (which, 
unfortunately, is not often the case) — one drop in milk three times 
a day. If the cold reaches the chest, add to the aconite dose one 
drop of bryonia. Milk should enter largely into the dietary, 
meat being reserved till the cold has subsided. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR.— Cats that are sent to shows 
are often affected with ear complaints, through particles from pens, 
etc. It is desirable to examine these organs occasionally, for if 



DISEASES. 77 

neglected, canker and other more serious complications may arise. 
To remove /my foreign substance great care must be exercised. If 
any incrustation has taken place, take one ounce of carbonate of 
Boda and half a pint of hot water, and with an xmbroken feather 
work this solution roxmd the ear ; this will generally dissolve the 
waxy particles. If the wax has hardened, olive oil will soften it, 
and a final treatment with carbolic acid, one part to eighty of 
,water, will clear the ear. 

OANEIEB.- — For the treatment of this complaint, mix one 
ounce of glycerine and half a drachm of carbolic acid, and apply 
twice a day with a feather or soft linen rag, which should be 
burnt after each application. 

CATARRHAL OPHTHALMIA.— Eye affections arising from 
colds usually yield to comfortable housing, the eyes being protected 
from draughts. Warm water should be used to remove any dis- 
charge, after which bathe with a lotion of sulphate of ziuc four 
grains, rose water one drachm, distilled water one ounce. The 
cat's head must be held back so that this lotion freely circulates 
in the eye. Providing the lotion does not cure in a week, 
apply three times a day the following ointment : Mowers of 
sulphur, six grains; lard, one ounce. It is as well that some 
opening medicine should be given, one dessert-spoonful of castor 
oil for a full grown cat, and for a kitten one teaspoonful, being 
the dose. 

BRONCHITIS. — Neglected colds and other causes produce 
this acute inflammation of the air-tubes of the lungs. It must be 
taken in time, or the results wiU be fatal. In the earlier stages, 
there are runnings at nose, and cough, and removal at once 
to warm quarters is of the highest importance. Fomentations of hot 
water that she can inhale are useful in very bad cases. Give one 
table-spoonful of castor oil at once, and again after an interval of 
twenty-four hours. Administer one drop of aconite in milk every 
three hours for the first day, and follow with one drop of bryonia and 
one drop of aconite mixed and given three times a day till 
recovery. Nutritious food wiU be needed when the feverish 



78 DOMESTIC OB TAKCT CAT& 

symptoms hxve abated, and if the oonstitntion is debilitated, a 
deBsert-Bpoonfol of ood-liver oil can be given once a day for 
two or three months with adTantage. 

DIAKBHCEA. — Never allow a cat to continue long with this 
ailment. When nndne looseness of the bowels is indicated, give at 
once according to size of cat, a teaspoonfol to a dessertspoonful of 
castor oil. After three hours follow with the following mixture : 
Chalk, six grains ; landannm, three drops; water, one onnce; give a 
dessert-spoonfnl three times a day till cured. Dry arrowroot will 
also check an ordinary case. 

DTSENTEBT.— ThiB follows neglected diarrhoea, and is often 
fatal owing to the impoverished condition to which this disease 
rapidly reduces the cat. Perfect quiet is needful, and a large pen, 
or two in one, in a warm room with plenty of litter is a useful con- 
trivance. Aconite as a medicine, as prescribed for bronchitis, can 
be given, and where great thirst is apparent add the bryonia. The 
constitution will require a deal of rebuilding after an attack; 
every nourishing food must be given and at least a three months' 
course of cod liver oil as recommended for bronchitis is also desir- 
rable. In some cases injections of warm water will produce 
excellent results. 

FITS. — These quite as frequently occur with kittens as with 
matured cats, and when the animals are in a healthy condition but 
little good results from medical treatment. Quiet and air are the 
best incentives to recovery. As with rabbits, bleeding from an 
ear- vein prevents a recurrence; giving one grain bromide of 
potassium daily in the cat's food, coupled with proper consti- 
tutional conditions, is all that can be done in these cases. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH.—This is a somewhat 
unusual complaint with cats. It results from impaired digestion, 
wet, attempts to poison, etc. One teaspoonful of castor oil should be 
first given. Aconite is the best remedy, in the same proportions as 
previously recommended. Nourishing liquid foods must also be 
given, such as beef- tea and milk ; a course of cod-liver oil is of 
immense benefit. 



DISEASES. 7V> 

WORMS.^7ats are more troubled with worms than many 
imagine, and the presence of the pests could in many cases have 
been easily prevented by their owners. In an article in The 
Bazaar J which has 1 find been reprinted elsewhere, I fully de- 
scribed each of these intestinal parasites. Briefly, the worms that 
affect cats are of three species : (1) Oxyuris vermicularia (small 
thread- worm), (2) Ascaris lumbricoides (long round- worm), and (3) 
Tcenia solium (common tape- worm). The first of these, which 
forms in bunches, does not usually affect cats. It is No. 2, which 
somewhat resembles our common earth-worm, that gives most 
trouble. The most prominent cause of this worm is eating 
decomposed food, raw or underdone meat, or raw fish not suffici- 
ently fresh. It is therefore obvious that if raw meat, etc., be given, 
it must be perfectly fresh ; and if cooked let it be fairly- well done. 

In reference to Ascaris, a special feature has been noticed in 
many cases that have been submitted to me for treatment, that is 
to say, in some instances cats have been choked. This particular 
worm, which inhabits chiefly the small intestines, not infrequently 
passes into the stomach and is vomited, aa well as expelled with the 
evacuations. They also find their way into the air-passages by 
way of the oesophagus and trachea, causing death by asphyxia. 
As they rapidly accumulate, it is highly important to treat on the 
manifestation of the very earliest symptoms. 

The Tcenia solium^ or tape- worm, is not so often seen in cats, 
but requires much longer treatment to clear the system of it. 

There are several remedies for the expulsion of worms, the 
commonest and most useful being santonine ; and it serves for 
either pest. From one to three grains, according to the size of the 
cat, should be given in milk after fasting for six hours. In three 
hours administer a teaspoonful of castor oil, of course keeping the 
patient confined to her quarters. This treatment should be re- 
peated, allowing one day intervals, for a week, feeding sparingly 
meanwhile. 

A specific which I have found to produce excellent results when 
the above has failed to clear the system is six grains of freshly 



gTOand weca out and one Rrain of Mntoniue mixed u & doae for 
■m Ittrge uid fuU-aized oat; cnstoi oil to follow in the usual maimer. 
If theao remedies fail, a modified use of Heald's or Spiatt's norm 
powders, or Caatrique, will come within the category of tTOatoieDt. 

Foi tape-worma the homceopathio FiJix-mat (oil of male fern) is 
considered a Tnlnable speciflc- 

The ravages which these parasites make on the ajstein of the 
cat at once indicate liberal and aoimd feeding to restore their 
condition. They shonld also be closely observed for any future 
indicatioiu of a recoirence. 

PARALYSIS — Cats at times, though fortunately not often, anffer 
from paralysia of the hind-quarters. When thns affected, the cat 
falls over on one side, and on rising tries to drag the hind legs 
after it. 

Warmthin a pen, as recommended for dysentery, ia needed, and 
thehind-quaiters should be dressed twice daily with turpentine. 

Other BuppOBsd ailments may from time to time occur, but a 
careful surrey of those described will usually be found to contain, 
in a great measure, a diagnosis and treatment of the new one. 



CHAPTER IX. 

HOMES FOR CATS— CAT OLDBS. 

9T frequently bappem that people leave houses fur 
periodical sojourn, and at times remove, witlioitt the 
Y consideration or provision for the domestic cat, 
tliat baa been considered an essential of the household for 
the time being. Far be it from me to accuse thoes 
nlioni it may concern with deliberate cruelty ; we all know how in the 
hnrry and worry of each matters, many important things are at the 
last moment left undone, and thus the unlortanate cat at times 
Dombers among the items that should have received attention. But 
I hope these remarks will not fall altogether on stony ground. 

Her Most Gracious Majesty the Qneen personally remarked at 
the jnbilee meeting in London of the Royal Society foe the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: "No civilisation is complete 
wbich does not include the dumb and defenceless of God's 
creatures within the sphere of charity and mercy." Her Majesty 
(who is naturally a most earnest supporter of this institution), had 
also previously written " that she should be very happy if any- 
thing could be done for cats, having noticed they are rather a 
persecuted race." Practical example is also an especially valuable 
adjunct to precept, and the Queen in this respect seta one worthy of 
imitation and general adoption, by taking the Windaor cats in wicker 
baskets when Her Majesty m^rates to other royal residences. 



82 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

Of other societies working in the direction of extending and 
developing feelings of humanity towards dnmb creation, the Animals' 
Hospital and Institute, Kinnerton Street, London, S.W., and the 
London Institution for Lost and Starving Cats, Farkhill Road, 
Hampstead, N.W., deserve notice. 

At certain shows classes are devoted to cats the property of working^ 
people, and the competition in this section encourages the better 
treatment of the animals, as owners must exhibit their specimens 
in the best condition if they wish their names to appear in the prize- 
list. 

Apart from the many individuals, including veterinary surgeons, 
who usually advertise in the "fancy" papers that they will take 
in cats as boarders, there is the "Home" at Battersea, London, 
S.W. (Mr. Henry James Ward, Secretary), where, at a trifling cost, 
accommodation for cats can be afforded, with proper supervision, 
cleanliness, feeding, and housing ; and as they can be sent, after the 
necessary arrangements have been made, by rail, carrier, or hand, no 
legitimate excuse for cruelty by neglect exists with owners who are 
temporarily vacating their residences. Miss Harper's home for cats at 
Brighton is also to be recommended. 

Excellent as are the arrangements of these institutions and the 
conditions of several others that 1 have visited, by far the most 
complete is Miss Swifte's Home for Starving and Forsaken Cats, 
Grand Canal Quay, Dublin. The inception of the idea, down to 
its latest detail, is the entire work of Miss Swifte, who at an early- 
period was so deeply impressed with the many cases of neglect or 
ill-treatment of cats, that with a very small sum at commencement, 
assisted by the incentive of what was to her a labour of love, the 
place gradually developed, and is now unique of its kind, being 
a perfect cattery on a large scale, with houses, grass runs, and every 
arrangement that thought and willing application could perfect. 
To use Miss Swifte's own words : " The principal objeet of this 
home is to receive, feed, and shelter cats found starving, lost, or 
deserted, abandoned often by heartless people, until they can be 
humanely disposed of. Cats are also taken in as boarders at a shilling 



CA.T CLUBS. 88 

per naek each Bod kittens at aixpence. No experiments are allowed 
to be made on any of them. Cats may be parchssed, but none are 
allowed to leave the Honie withont an order from Miss Swifte, oc the 
secretary of the B.S.F.C.A., and ingiiiry is to be made ae to the 
nature of their fntnre residence." In order to tboroughlj appreciate 
this labour of mercy, it ehonld be ' remembered that the humane 
work of Bheltering: and feeding' these unfortunate animals is 
performed by the institution, without any snbsidy or grant whatever, 
and the home is entirely dependent on the Toluntary aid of 
sympathetio friends. 

The expense of efficiently muntaining such homes must necessarily 
be considerable, and those readers with an excess of this world's 
goods conld with advantage assist such undertakings by a periodical 
loosening of their purse- strings. Lethargic sympathy is the chief 
difScolty that has to be contended with in all charitable institutions, 
but I nevertheless tmst that all those who wish to alleviate the 
anfferings of, and minimise the cmeltiea practised on, the dumb 
creation, especially cats, will not allow these remarks to have been 
written in vain. 

There are two clnhs which look after the interests of the domestic 
FaUdai, the National Cat Club (Hon. Sec,, Mrs. Stennard Bobinson, 
5, Great James Street, Bedford Row, W.C.) and the Cat Club 
(Bon. Sec, Hrs. C. J. Bagster, IS*, Paternoster Kow, E.C.). The 
Gat Clnb issuea a Stud Boob, and no charge is made for registration. 
Any cat exhibited at shows promoted by the latter dab must be 
registered. 



CHAPTER X. 

OAT ITEMS— GHAVE, GAY, HUMOROUS. 

k HE previom psges of thu work contain, I think, all 
easenti&l information of all that ia alike hiotorioAl, and 
from a breeding and exhibition point of view. Apart 
fiom this, however, the cat hoe been so often 
the Bubject of folk-lore, BDpsntition, and 
Iinmour, that I purpose in this, the concluding chapter, giving 
a few items, which I think should claim the fancier's interest. 

The wisdom of cats in matters pertaining to onr meteorological 
conditions has given rise to a moBt extensive folk-lore, forming an 
interesting Bnbject for those who delight in peculiar research. It 
is almost universally believed that good weather may be expected 
when the cat washes herself, but bad when she licks her coat 
against the grain, or washes her face over her ear, or aits with 
her tail towards the fire. 

Not only is the cat supposed to be thus weatherwise in her 
" forecasts," but she is snperstitiously held to have a good shore 
in the arrangement of it. Sailors, for example, think it most 
unwise to provoke a oat for fear of incurring her displeaanre, and 



OAT ITEMS— GBAVE, OAY, HUMOROUS. g5 

for this reason endeayour to avoid having one on board the vessel 
they are serving on ; and the popular saying among those that 
follow the sea, " the cat has got a gale of wind in her tail, " refers 
to an animal that is more frisky than usual. 

Ill the case of a ** calm/' a charm is often resorted to by throw- 
ing a cat overboard. According to a Hungarian proverb, <* as a 
cat does not die in water, (?)it8 paws disturb the surface," hence 
the flaws on the surface of the waters are known by sailors as 
** cat's paws." In the same sense an extended disturbance of the 
water's surface is a '^ cat's skin " ; while in some parts of England 
the popular name for the north-west winds is the " cat's nose." 

Among other items in which the weather and the cat are 
associated, I may mention that there is in Germany a superstition 
that if it rains when women have a large wash on hand, it is an 
infallible sign of spite through the cat being ill-treated. Again 
there is a German belief that any one who, during his lifetime, 
may have made cats his enemies, is certain to be « accompanied to 
the grave by storm and rain. 

The Butch have also attributed a rainy wedding-day to the 
bride's not feeding the cat. In the valleys of the Tyrol, girls who 
are fond of cats are said always to marry early — an evidence, as 
has been remarked, that household virtues are appreciated in them 
by the men. 

But apart from the weather superstitions associated with the 
cat, there is an extensive field of belief relating to '^ folk-medicine." 
Thus in Cornwall the little formations on children's eyelids, locally 
known as ^* whelks," are cured by passing the tail of a black cat 
nine times over the part affected. It will be remembered 
that as recently as 1867 a woman in Pennsylvania was 
publicly accused of witchcraft (which she denied) for ad- 
ministering three drops of a black cat's blood to a child 
as a remedy for croup, from which it speedily recovered, as 
was proved by a large number of witnesses. In some parts 
of the country there is also a belief that keeping a black oat 
is both an antidote and a cure for epilepsy. 



86 DOMESTIC OB FANCY CATS. 

Formerly in Scotland, when a family removed from one hotne 
to another, the cat was alwaya taken, as it served for a protection 
against disease ; and so strong was this superstition, that before a 
member of the family entered the new residence, the cat was thrown 
into it. There was also a notion that if a curse or disease had been 
associated with the house, the cat became the victim and died, to 
the saving of the family's lives. 

In the North- Western Highlands a remedy for erysipelas was 
lately practised in the parish of Locharron, which consisted in cut- 
ting off one half of the ear of a cat and letting the blood drop on 
the part affected. In the North-East of Scotland, if a cow or 
other domestic animal was seized with disease, one mode of core 
was to twist a rope of straw the contrary way, join the two ends, 
and put the diseased animal through the loop with a cat. By this 
means the disease was supposed to be transferred to the cat, the 
cow's life being spared by the cat dying. 

Equally unfortunate is it for a cat to sneeze, this act being 
supposed to initiate colds throughout the household. In some 
districts, if the cat is ever such a favourite, it is instantly put out 
of doors on the first sneeze ; for if it be repeated three times 
indoors all the household will have colds. 

The colours of cats in association with dreams give rise to strong 
superstitious beliefs in Germany, especially with a black cat and 
Christmas, as being a sure omen of some alarming illness during 
the coming year. Cats bom in May are supposed to be associated 
with melancholy, bringing nothing but sadness to the house that 
shelters her. 

Passing on to the humorous as pertaining to cats, a few 
quotations from the pen of that inimitable humourist. Josh Billings, 
will be read with interest : 

KATS. 

A kat iz sed to hav nine lives, but i beleaf they dont have but 
one square death. 

It is allmost impossible to tell when a kat iz dead without the 
aid of a koroners jury. 



OAT ITEMS— GRAVE, GAY, HUMOROUS. 87 

I hay only one way miself to judge ov a ded kat. — If a kat iz 
killed in the fall ot the year, and thrown over the stun wall into 
yure nabors lot, and lays thare all winter under a sno bank, and 
dont thaw out in the spring, and keeps quiet during the summer 
months, and aint missing when winter sets in agin, I have alwus 
sed, that " that kat " waz ded, or waz playing the thing dreadful 
fine. I hay studdyed kats clusely for years, and hav found them 
adikted tew a wild state. They aint got affeckshuns, nor vartue 
of enny kind : they will scratch their best friends, and wont ketch 
mice unless they are hungry. 

It haz bin sed that tha are good to make up into sassages ; this 
is a grate mistake. I hav bin told by a sassage maker tha dont 
kompare with dogs. 

There iz one thing sartin, they are very anxious tew live. You 
may turn one inside out, and hang him up bi the tale, and az soon 
az you are out ov sight he will manage to turn a back somerset, 
and cum around al rite in a f u days. 

It iz very hard work to loze a kat. If one gits carried oph in a 
bag bi mistake a grate ways into the kuntry, they wont stay 
lose onla a short time, but soon appear tew make the family happy 
with their presence. 

Speaking of kats, mi opinyim iz, and will continue to be, that 
the old fashioned kaliko coulered kats iz the best breed for a man 
ov moderate means, who aint got but little munny to put into kats. 

They propogate the most intensely, and lay around the stove 
more regular than the maltose, or the brindle kind. 

The yeller kat iz a fair kat, but they aint reliable ; they are 
apt tew stay out late nights, and once in a while git on a bad bust. 

Blak kats hav a way ov gitting on the top ov the wood-house 
when other folks hav gone tew bed, and singing dewets till their 
voices spile, and their tails swell till it seems as tho they must split. 

Old maids are very fond of kats, for the reason, I suppose, that 
kats never marry if they hav ever so good a chance. Thare iz one 
thing about kats I dont like, if you step on their tales by acksi- 
dent they git mad rite oph, and make a grate fuss about it. 



gg DOMESTIC OB FANCY OATS. 

Thare u anoUier thing thaat them, which makes them a good 
inTeitment for poor folks. A p&ir of kata will yield each year, 
' withont any outlay, something like eight hnndied per cent. 

Kats and dogs haT sever bin able tew agree on the main 
qnestiou, tha both seem to want the affirmatiff side tew onst. 

Tew pik out a good kat, one that will tend to bizzness and not 
astronomize nights, nor praktiss operatik strains, is an evidence ot 
genius. I dont Inv kats ennff tew pik ont one ennyhow, but if I 
could hav my way thore wouldn't be enny more kats bom, unless 
they could show a certificate of good moral karakter. 

Kats with blue eyes, and very long whiskers, with the points ot 
their ears a little rounded are not to be trusted. They will steal 
young chickens, and hook kream oph from the millr pans, every 
good chance they kan git. 

Kats with gra eyes, very short whiskers, and four white toes 
are the best kats there iz t*> lay in front ov the kitchen stove ^1 
day, and be stepped on their tails every fu minnitts. 

Kats with blak eyes, no whtsken at all, and sharp pointed ears, 
are liabel to phitts. These are mi views about kats, rather 
hastily wove together, and if I haint ced ennff agin them, it is 
only because I lack the infonnaahnn. 



AbyHBiiiUD. the, 2a, 49. 
Aneodotea, 84. 

Angoa,. the, 13, and FrontUpieoe. 
Animals' Hospital and InBtitnte, 

83. 
" Any other Tarioty," 22, 
^scaris lumiiricoideg, 79. 
ABpbyiia, oanaed by roand- 

worms, 79. 



Baskets for traTelling, 69. 

Bathing, 69. 

BattetBea, home for oata at, 82. 

Beds, 30. 

Beef, 60. 

Beet-tea, 60. 

Beginners, odrice to, 34. 

BillingB, Joah, on " Kata," 86. 

BillH of face. S3. 

Birds as food, 60. 

Black, the. 45. 

Cats, 21. 

Cats end witoheraft, 85. 

Parsian, the, 11. 
Bleeding, a remflfly for fits, 78. 



Blae, the, 44. 

PeTBian, the, II. 

Tabby, the, IS, 4i. 
Boies and hampers, 69. 

For kitteniDgr, 38. 
Breed, definition oF, 10. 
Breeding, 36. 

Long-httirad oata, 45. 

Short-haired cats, 41. 
Brighton, home toe oata at, 
Bronchitis, T7. 
BrowD Persian, the, 12. 

Tabby, the, 13, 44. 
Batohera' soraps, 61. 



Canker, 77. 

Castriqna, 80. 

Cat Clubs, 83. 

Catarrh, or cold, 76. 

Catarrhal ophthalmia, 77. 

" Cats' moat,'' 61. 

Catteries, 24, 27, 31. 

ChartreDae monks, cats bred by, 14. 

Chinchilla, the, 46. 

Persian, the, II. 
Chinese cats, 14. 
Chocolate tabby, the, 18. 



90 



INDEX. 



Clubs, Cat, 83. 

Coat, stimulant for, 75. 

Colds, 76. 

Conveyed by the cat to the 
owners, 86. 

Besult of neglected, 78. 
Colour, mating for production of, 

46. 
Condiments, 63. 
Condition of coat, obtaining, 65. 
Cooked food, 60, 79. 
Cooling medicines, 75. 
Cream-coloured cats, 21. 
Crossing, 40. 

D. 

Deodorising, 30. 
Deserted cats, 81. 
Diarrhoea, 78. 
Dietary, 60. . 

Dirt on coats, remoTing, 66. 
Diseases, 72. 
Disinfecting, 30. 
Distemper, 73. 
Dry earth v. sawdust, 30. 
Dublin, home for cats at, 82. 
Dutch superstitions, 85. 
Dysentery, 78. 



E. 



Ear, inflammation of the, 76. 
Earth, dry, v. sawdust, 30. 
Ear-vein, bleeding from, for fits, 

78. 
Eczema, 74. 
Exhibition, preparation for, 65. 



P. 

Feeding, 59. 

Invalid cats, 72. 

Kittens, 38. 
Fish, 61. 



Fits, 78. 
Flooring, 29. 
Folk-lore, 84. 
Foods, 52. 

For invalid cats, 72. 
Foster-mothers, 39, 57. 
French cats, 14. 
Fur, stimulant for, 75. 

G. 

German superstitions, 86. 
Gestation, period of, 38. 
Grass as food, 62. 

Buns, 27. 
Grey oats, 21. 

Tabby, the, 18. 

Tabby Persian, the, 11. 
Ground plan of cattery, 31. 



Hampers and boxes, 69. 
Harper's (Miss) home for cats, 82 
Heald's worm powders, 80. 
Heating apparatus, 29. 
Hereditary diseases, 74. 
Homes for cats, 81. 
Horse-flesh, 60. 
Hospital, 27, 73. 
Hot-water apparatus, 29.* 
Houses, 24, 27, 31. 
Hungarian proverbs, 85. 



i. 



Indian cats, 14. 
Inflammation of the ear, 76. 

- Of the stomach, 78. 
Injections for dysentery, 78. 
Institutions for lost and starring 

cats, 82. 
Intestinal worms, 79. 
Isolation of sick cats, 27, 73. 
Izal, 30. 



INDEX. 



91 



J. 



Jeyes' Fluid, 30. 



" Kats," Josh Billings on, 86. 

Kittening, 38. 

Kittens, treatment of, 38, 51. 



Lawes' Flnid, 30. 

Legends, 84. 

Lentils, 62. 

Liquid nourislinient, 63. 

Liver, boiled, 61. 

London Institution for Lost and 

Starving Oats, 82. 
Long-haired cats, 10, 45. 
Lotion for catarrhal ophthalmia, 

77. 
For skin diseases, 75. 



Mange, 74. 

Manx, the, 22, 49. 

Mating, 36. 

Matted coat, nnravelling, 66. 

Maturity, age of, 37. 

Meals, 59, 64. 

Meat, 60. 

Medicine, administering, 73. 

Cooling, 76. 

Topic, 74, 78. 
Milk, 60, 63. 

National Cat Club, 83. 

Neck-ribbons and collars, 53. 

Nests, 38. 

NichoUs', Mr. W. J., experi- 
ments in breedir»g Tor- 
toise-shells, 41. 

Nnrse-oats, 39, 57. 



O. 

Odd eyes, 21. 

Ointments for skin diseases, 75. 

For ulcers, 76. 
Opening medicines, 77. 
Ophthalmia catarrhal, 77. 
Oxywris vermicvlarUy 79. 

P. 

Pans for sanitary purposes, 30. 
Paralysis, ^0. 
Parasites, 76. 
Parasitic diseases, 74. 
Pens, 24, 27, 31. 
Performing cats, 53. 
Persian, the, 11, 67. 
Plan of cattery, 27. 
Portable houses and runs, 34. 
Powder for parasites, 76. 
Preparation of exhibits, 65. 
Proverbs about cats, 85. 
Purging medicines, 77. 

Queen, H.M. the, on prevention of 

cruelty to animals, 81, 82. 
Queen cat, age of, for breeding, 38. 

Raw food, 60, 79. 
Bed cats, 21. 

Persian, the, 11. 

Tabby, the, 18, 42. 
Begistration, 83. 
Bibbons and collars, 53. 
Bound-worm, long, 79. 
Boyal cat of Siam, 23, 47, 49. 
B.S.P.C.A., 81. 
Buns, 24, 27, 31. 
Bussian cats, 15, 17. 



92 



UTDEX. 



S. 



Sailors* saperstitions, 84. 

Sanitary arrangements, 30. 

Sanitas, 30. 

Sawdosfe V. dry earth, 30. 

Scottish superstitions, 86. 

•'Season," indications of, 37. 

Self-coloured cats, 20, 44. 

Short-haired oats, 17. 

Show- pen, training for the, 69. 

Siamese, the, 23, 47, 49. 

Sickness, 72. 

Silyer Tabby, the, 18. 

Tabby, Persian, the, 11. 
Skin diseases, 74. 
Smoke Persian, the, 11. 
Soap for washing, 66, 
S.P.C.A., 81. 
Spotted Tabbies, 18, 19. 
Spratt's Cat Food, 63. 

Houses and Buns, 35. 
Stomach, inflammation of the, 78. 
Striped Tabbies, 18, 19. 
Stud Book, Cat Club's, 83. 
Stud cats, houses for, 27. 
Superstitions, 84. 
Swifte's (Miss) Home for Starying 

and Forsaken Cats, 83. 
Swiss Superstitions, 85. 

T. 

Tabbies, 18. 

Breeding, 42. 
Tabby, derivation of the word, 18. 

Persians, 11. 
Tania «oltTtm, 79. 
Tailless cats, 22. 
Tape-worm, 79, 
Temperature of bath, 69. 
Thread-worm, small, 79. 
Tiger Cat, the, 14. 
Tonic medicine, 74, 78. 
Tortoise-shell, the, 17, 55. 

Persian, the, 12. 

Tom, 41. 



Training for the show-pen, 69. 

Kittens, 52. 
Transferring kittens to foster- 
mother, 58. 
-Trayelling-boxes and hampers, 69. 
Tricks, teaching, 53. 

U- 

Ulcers, 76. 

Uncooked food, evil results of, 61. 

V. 

Varieties and their character- 
istics, 9. 
Vegetables, 62. 
Ventilation, 29. 
Vermifuges, 79. 

W. 

Warming cattery, 29. 
Washing, 66. 

Patients with skin diseases, 
75. 
Water, 60. 

Trough for, 33. 
Wax in the ear, hardened, 77. 
Weaned kittens, apartments for, 

27, 30. 
Weather, domestic cats and the, 

84. 
White Angora, the, 14. 

Cats, 21. 

Persian, the, 11. 
Tabby, the, 18. 
Windsor cats, 82. 
Witchcraft and cats, 85. 
Worms, 79. 



Yellow tabby, the, 18. 
Young oats, 51. 



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[ INDEX 

I To the Practical Handbooks published by L. Upcott Qill, 
\ London, and Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. 



ART. PI OB 
Chubcbbs, Old Eng- 

USE 7 

DOIONINO, Habmonic 8 
Lacb, Hand-Made .... 11 

OldViouns 16 

Paper Work Orna< 

MENTAL 12 

Paihtino, Decorative 12 
Pbrspectiye 13 

AMUSEHCNTS. 

Cards 13 

Card Games 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16 

Conjuring 8, 15 

Entertainments 6, 9, 15, 16 
Fortune Teluno .... 9 

Games, General 10 

Magic Lanterns 12 

Palmistry 12 

Pbotographt 13 

Pool 14 

Tamping 16 

COLLECTING. 

Autographs 5 

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Postmarks 14 

Pottery & Porcelain 14 

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War Medals ^, 16 

FARMING. 

Goats 10 

Horses U 

Pigs 13 

Poultry U, 14 

Sheep 15 

Stock Records . .6, 13, 15 

GARDENING. 

Begonias 6 



PAGE 

Book of Gardening . . 10 

Bulbs 6 

Cactus 7 

Carnations 7 

Chrysanthemums.... 7 

Cucumbers 8 

Dictionary of Gar- 
dening 10 

FERNS 9 

Fruit 10 

Gardening in Egypt.. 10 

Grapes 10 

Greenhouse Manage- 
ment 11 

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Mushrooms 12 

Orchids 12 

Perennuui 11 

BOSES 14 

tomatoes 16 

Vegetables 16 



HOME. 

Cookery 5,8,9 

Lace, Hand-Made .... 11 

Medicine U 

MiLUNERY... 12 

Needlework 9, 12 

MECHANICS. 

Bookbinding 6 

Cane Basket Work . . 7 

Firework Making .. 9 

Fretwork 10 

MARqUETERIE 10, 12 

Metal Working.. 6, 15, 17 

Model Yachts 12 

Ticket Writing 17 

Turning 16 

Wood Working.. 6, 10, 12, 

13,16,17 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

Aquaria 5 



PAGE 

Insects 5,6,7,11 

Sketches 12 

Taxidermy 16 

VlYARIUM 16 

PET-KEEPING. 

Birds 6,7,9,13,17 

Cats 7 

Dogs 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 

Guinea Pigs.... .^..^ U 

Mice 12 

Monkeys 12 

Pheasants ».. 13 

Pigeons 13 

Babbits ^ 14 

SPORTING. 

Angling ....»...^6, 9, 15 

Cycling 8 

Ferreting 9 

Game Preseryino . . ^ 10 

Saiuno 6, 11, 14, 15 

Skating ^ 15 

Trapping 16 

WiLDFOWUNG 1? 

Wild Sports ' 17 

SEAFARING. 

BOAT Sailing 6 

Saiuno Tours 14, 15 

SeaLife 15 

SeaTerms 15 

Solent Guide 14 

Yachting Yarns 11 

TOURING. 

Friesland Meres .... 10 
Inland Watering 

Places 11 

BouTE Map 8 

Seaside Watering 

Places 15 

Welsh Mountaineer- 
ing 12 

206C11A)0 



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Bant Iron Work: A Praetical Manual of Instruction for Amateurs in the 
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Brooders' and Ezhlbltora' Record, fer the Registration of Particulars con- 
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BrltUb Dragonfllen. Being an Exhaustive Treatise on our Native Odonata ; 
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Bunkum Bntertalnmenta : A Collection of Original Laughable SUts on 
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Buttopfly and Moth OoUeotiBtf : Where to Search, and What to Do. By 
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Oaotut Culture for Amateurs: Being Descriptions of the various Cactuses 
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Oatfe Birds, Diseases of: Their Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. A Hand- 
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Cage Birds, Motes on. Second Series. Being Practical Hints on the 
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Canary Book. The Breeding, Bearinff, and Management of all Varieties of 
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Cats, Domestic and Fancy: A practical Treatise on their Varieties, 
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Coins, a Guide to Bnglish Pattern, in Gold, Silver, Copper, and Pewter, 
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8 Published by L. Upcott Gill, 



Gold Meat Cookery. A Handy Guide to making really tasty and macb 
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Oollle Stud Book. Edited by Huqh Dalzixl. In doth gilt, pHoe lib each, 
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Vol. I,, containing Pedigree! of 1308 of the best-known Bogs, traced to 
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Fol. II, Pedigrees of 795 Dogs, Show Record, Ac. 

Vol, III, Pedigrees of 786 Bogs, Show Record, Ac 

Ooiyiiriiitf, Book of Modem. A Practical Onide to Brawing-room and 
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ConJuFintf and Card Trioks, Book of. By Prof. B. Kunard. Being 
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CoiUnrintf tor Amateure. A Practical Handbook on How to Perfoim 
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Cookery for Amateurs; or, French Bishes for English Homes of all 
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Cacumber Culture for Amateurs. Indnding also Melons, Vegetable Mar- 
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Dainties, Entflisb and Foreign, and How to Prepare Them. By Mrs. 

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Dogs, British, Ancient and Modem: Their Varieties, History, and 
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Vol, I, Dogs TTaed in Field Sports, 

Vol, III, Practical Kennel Management: A Complete 
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170 Strand, London, W.O. 9 

Do^. Dlieases of: Their Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment; Modes of 
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Dotf-Keepintf, Popalav! Being a Handy Guide to the Oeneral Management 
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Ferns, The Book of Choice: for the Garden, Conservatory, and Stove. 
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Fisherman, The Practical. Dealing with the Natural History, the 
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Fish, Flesh, and Fowl.** When in Season, How to Select, Cook, and Serve. 
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Foreign Birds, Favourite, for Cages and Aviaries. How to Keep them in 
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Fortune Telling by Cards. Describing and Dlustrating the Methods usually 
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Fox Terrier, The. Its History, Points, Breeding, Bearing, Preparing for 
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»«^ 



10 PuhlUhed by L. IJPCOTT GiLL, 

FpxTttwIav Bind Book. Edited hj Hugh Dalzixl. In eloth gUt, price 3/6 
Md^ftyjMMl 3/9 each, 

Voh !•• oontainiiig Pedisrees of over 1400 of- the beit>lmo«ii Dogs,- traced 
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Vol, II, Pedlgreee of 1544 Dogi, Show Beoord, Ac. 

Vol, ZTX. Pedigree! of 1214 Dogs, Show Beoord, Ae. 

Vol, I r. Pedigrees of 1168 Dogs, Show Beoord, Ao. 

VoU F. Pedigreee of 1662 Dogi, Show Beoord. Ac 

Vvot work and MaFanotry* A Practioal Bfannal of ZnetniotloBB in the Art 
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Vrlealand Meres, A Gralee on the. By Bbnbst B. JSuffluio. ningtrated. 
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Fralt Oalture for JLmatenn. An illastrated practical handbook on the 
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Game Preeerwlntf, Pvaotloal. Containing the fullest Directions for Bearing 
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Oamee. the Book of a Hundred. By Mabt Whitb. These Games are for 
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Gardening, The Book of: A Handbook of Horticulture. By well-known 
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Trevor Monmouth, G. Schneider, Mortimer Thorn, J. J. Willis, and Alan 
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Gardening, Dictionary of. A Practical Encyclopedia of Horticulturei for 
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Q. Nicholson, Curator of the Boyal Botanic Gardens, Kew : assisted by Prof. 
Trail, M.D., Bev. P. W. Myles, B. A., F.L.S., W. Watson, J. Garrett, and other 
Specialists. In 4 vols,, large post %to. (Xoth giU, price iSS, by pott £3 2/-. HeUf 
morocco, £3 3/- nett, by pott £3 5/-. 

Dictionary of Gardening. A Supplement is in preparation, bringing 
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Gardening In Btfypt. A Handbook of Gardening for Lower Egypt. With a 
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Gardening, Home. A Manual for the Amateur, Containing Instructions for 
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paper, price 1/-, by poet 1/2. 

Goat, Book of the* Containing Full Particulars of the Various Breeds * 
Goats, and their Profitable Maiugement. With many Plates. By H. Stbphi 
HOLMBS Pbolbr. Third Edition, with Engravings and Coloured Frontlsplee 
In doth gilt, price 4/6, by pott 4/10. 

Ooat-Keeplng for Amateurs : Being the Practieal Management ot Goats f 
Milking Purposes. Abridged from " The Book of the Goat^ Hlnstrated. 

paper, price I/-, by pott 1/2. 

Grape Grovlntff or Amateore. A Thoroughly Practieal Book mi Snooes^ 
Vine Culture. By B. Moltnbvx. Hlustrated. In paper, price l/-, bypottl/i 



i. 



170, Btrcmd, Londm, W.C. 11 

Ov6(Uilioiistt Mawageinent for Amateimu The Best GreenhooMs and 
Frames, and How to Build and Heat them, Hlostrated Deecriptions of the 
raoet eiiitable Plants, with general and Special Cnltural IMreotions, and all 
neeesBary information for toe Onidance of the Amateur. By W. J. Mat. 
Seooi^d Edition, Beyised and Enlarged. Magnificently Dlngtrated. In €iotk 
gUi, priM 6/-, Vy pott 5/4. 

OnlBoa Pig, The, for Food, Far, and Fancy. Its Varieties and its Manage- 
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HaadwvitiBtf , Charaotav Indicated by. With Hlnstrations in Support of 
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Second Edition. By B. Baughan. In cloth gUt, price 8/6, oy pott 8/9. 

\ Hardy Perenniale and Old-fashioned Garden Flovera* Descriptions, 

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b Profusely Illustrated. In cloth gtU, price 3/6, by pott 3/9. 

Hawk Moths, Book of British. A Popular and Practical Manual for all 
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Home Medicine and Surgery A Dictionary of Diseases and Accidents, 
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Horse-Keeper, The Praotioal. By OEORas Flshing, C.B., LL.D.. 
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Incubators and their Management. By J. H. Sutclipfb. New Edition, 
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Inland Watering Plaoes. A Description of the Spas of Oreat Britain and 
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^aek AU JLlone. Being a Collection of Descriptiye Yachting Beminisoenoes. 
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Journalism. Praotioal : How to Enter Thereon and Succeed. A book for 
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Iiaoe, A History of Hand-Made. By Mrs. E. Nbyill Jackson. 
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Iiavm Tennis, Iiessons in. A New Method of Study and Practise for 
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baying Hens, How to Keep and to Bear Chickens in Large or Small 
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12 



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Model Taohtfl and Boata : Their Designing, Making, and Sailing. Illustratod 
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Monkeys, Pet. and How to Manage Them. Illustrated. By Arthur Pattbr- 
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Monntaineerintf , Welsh* A Complete and Handy Guide to all the Best Roads 
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Mashroom Oultare foF JLmateara. With Full Directions for Successful 
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Hatnral History Bketohes among the Cami?ora— Wild and Domesticated ; 
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Keedlewopk, Diotionary of. An Bnqrdopsedia of Artistic, Plain, and Faney 
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Orchids ! Their Culture and Management, with Descriptions of all the Kinds 
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Painters and Their Works. A Work of the Greatest Value to CoUectora 
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Paintintf, Deoorative. A practical Handbook on Painting and Etchins upon 
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Palmistry, Life Studies in. The Hands of Notable Persons read according 
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Palmistry, Modem. By I. Oxenford, author of Life Studies in Palmistry. 
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Paper Work, Ornamental. A practical book on the making of flowers and 
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that work. By MRS. L. Walker. Fully Illustrated. 



170, Strand, London, W,C. 13 

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Pavrakeeta, Popular. How te Keep and Breed Them. By Dr. W. T. 
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Parrot, The Orey, and How to Treat it. By W. T. O&bbne, M.D., M.A., F.Z.S., 

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Patience, Games of, for one or more Players. How to Play 173 different 
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Perspective, The Bssentials of. HVith numerous Illustrations drawn by 
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Pheasant-Keeping for Amateurs. A Practical Handbook on the Breed- 
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Photographic Printing Processes, Popular. A Practical Guide to 
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Photography (Modem) for Amateurs. Fourth Edition. Revised and 
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Pig, Book of the. The Selection, Breeding, Feeding, and Management of the 
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Pigeons, Fancy. Containing full Directions for the Breeding and Manage- 
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Pigeon-Keeping for Amateurs. A Complete Guide to the Amatenr 
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Polishes and Stains for Vood : A Complete Guide to Polishing Wood- 
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Datid DENNiNa In paper, 1/-, by post 1/2. 



14 



Published by L. Upcott Gill, 



Pool, Games o& Deacribinc Vailoas English and Amerloaa Pool Qt 
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Poptraiture, Home, for Amateur Photographers. Being the result of , 
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Poitage Btampe, and their Collection. A Practleal Handbook for CoUc 
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Poatatfe Stamps of Burope, The Adhesive: A Practical Ooide to the 
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Postmarks, History of Brltlsli. With 360 niostrations and a List of Nnml 
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Pottery and Poroelain, Bntfllsli* A Ooide for Collectors. Handsomi 
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Poultry-Farming, Profitable. Describing in Detail the Methods that OWij 
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Rabbit, Book of The. A Complete Work on Breeding and Bearing aUVi 
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Mathig, Manaflwrnent, Ac., Ac. SECONi) EDITION. Emted by 

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les, B 
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Rabbits, Diseases of: Their Caoses, Symptoms, and Core. With a 
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Rabbits for Prises and Profit. The Proper Management of Fancy Babbit 
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General MemagBtnent of Mabbitt* Incloding Hotch< 
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XaohibiHon Xabbitt, Being descriptions of all Varieties of 
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Roses for JLmateurs. A Practical Ooide to the Selection and Colti?atioB 
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Balling Guide to the Solent and Poole Harbour, with Practical Hfait 
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Sailing Tours. The Tachtman's Ooide to the Crolsing Waters of the 1 
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water, ShoeJs, and Sands exposed at low water, with soonding. By Ff 
Cowpsa, B.A. In Orovm 8tN>., doth giU, 

Vol, r. The Coasts of Essex and Soffolk, from the Thames to Aldbor b. | 
Six Charts. Price 6/-, by pott 5/3. 



r 



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Voh XT. The South Coast, from tho Thames to the BcUly Islands, twenty* 
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V0I. ni. The Coast of Brittany, from L'Aberrrach to St Nasaire, and 
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Fol. IV, The West Coast, from Land's End to Mull of Qalloway, in- 
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Fol. F« The Coasts of Scotland and the N.B. of England down to Aid- 
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BU Bamard, Tlia* Its History, Potaits, Breeding, and Bearing. By Hush 
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Bt* Bomarcl Stud Book. Edited by Hugh Dalzibl. In doth gilt, price 
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\ Vol, X. Pedigrees of 1278 of the best known Dogs traced to their most 

remote known ancestors. Show Becord, Ac 

Fol. XT. Pedigrees of 664 Dogs, Show Becord, Ac 

Boa-Fishintf for Amateurs. Practical Instmctions to Visitors at Seaside 
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Boa-Iiife, Realities of. Describing the Duties, Prospects, and Pleasures of 
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Beaside Watering Plaoes. A Description of the Holiday Besorts on the 
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Siving full particulars of them and their attractions, and all information 
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Baa Terms, a Dlotlonary of. For the use of Yachtsmen, Voyagers, and 
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Bliadow BBtertainments, and How to Work them : being Something about 
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Blieep Raising and Shepherding. A Handbook of Sheep Farming. By 
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Bheet Metal, irorking In: Being Practical Instructions for Making and 
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Bhovr Reoord, The* Being Part III. of "The Breeders' and Exhibitors' 
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Bkating Oards : An Easy Method of Learning Figure Skating, as the Cards 
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Bleight of Hand* A Practical Manual of Legerdemain for Amateurs and 
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In doth giU, price 6/6, by poet 6/10. 

Solo Vhist. Its Whys and Wherefores. A Progressive and Clear Method 
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giU, price 3/6, by poet 3/10. 



16 Published hy L. IJPCOTT GiLL, 



Bpoptintf Books, Illustrated. A Descriptiye Survey of a Collection 
EngiiBh Ulustrated Works of a Sporting and Racy Character, with an I 
Appendix of Prints relating to Sports of the Field. The whole yalued byf 
reference to ATerage Auction Prices. By J. H. Slatek, Author of "Libraiy' 
Manual,'* "EngraVIngs and Their Value," dc. In doth gilt, price 7/6 nett, 
by poit 7/10. 

Stud Record, The. Being Part IL of "The Breeders' and Exhibitors' 
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Description. By W. K. Taunton. In cloth gilt, price 2/6, hypoit 2/9. 

Taxidermy, Praotloal. A Idanual of Instruction to the Amateur in Collect- 
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Examples anaWorking Diagrams. By Montagu Browne, F.Z.S., Curator of 
Leicester Museum. Second Edition, in eloth giU, price 1/t, by pott 7/10. 

Tomato and Fruit Grovrintf as an Industry for Women. Lectures given 
at the Forestry Bxhil>ition, Earl's Court, during Julv and August, 1883. By 
Grace Harriman, Practical Fruit Grower and County Council Lecturer. In 
paper, price 1/-, by pott 1/1. 

Tomato Onlture for Amateurs. A Practical and very Complete Manual on 
thesul)))ect. ByB.C. Bayenscroft. Illustrated. In paper, priceit,, by pott lt,ld. 

Trapping, Praotloal ; Being some Papers on Traps and Trapping for 
vermin, with a Chapter on General Bird Trapping and Snaring. By W. 
Carnegie. In paper, price 1/-, by pott 1/2. 

Turning Lathes. A Manual for Technical Schools and Apprentices. A Guide 
to Tuminff. Screw-cutting, Metal-spinning, Ac Edited by James Lukin, B.A. 
Third Edition. With 194 Illustrations. In doth gilt, price 3/-, by pott Z/i. 

Vamp, Hovr to. A Practictd Guide to the Accompaniment of Sonn by the 
Unskilled Musician. With Examples. In paper, price 9d., by pottiOd, 

Vegetable Culture for JLmateurs. Containing Concise Directions for the 
Cialtivation of Vegetables in small Gardens so as to insure Good Crops. 
With Lists of the Best Varieties of each Sort. By W. J. Mat. Illustrated. 
In paper, price 1/-, by pott 1/2. 

Vantriloqulsm, Practical. A thoroughly reliable Guide to the Art of 
Voice Throwing and Vocal Mimicry, Vocal Instrumentation, Ventriloquial 
Figures, Entertaining, Ac By Robert Ganthont. Numerous Illustrations. 
In eloth gilt, price 2/6. by pott 2/9. 

Violins (Old) and their Makers: Including some References to those of 
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Ticketa, Sound-Holes, Ac. In doth gilt, price t/b nett, by pott 6/10. i 

Violin Boliool, Practical, for Home Students. Instructions and Exerdses 
in Violin Playing, for the use of Amateurs, Self-learners, Teachers, and 
others. With a Supplement on **Easy Legato Studies for the VioUn." 
By J. M. Fleming. Demy 4(o, doth gilt, price 9/6, by pott 10/2. Without j 
Supplement, price 7/6, by pott 8/-. j 

Vivarium, The. Being a Full Description of the most Interesting Snakes, j 

Lizards, and other Beptiles, and How to Keep Them Satisfactorily in Con- \ 
flnement. By Bey. G. C. Bateman. Beautifully Illustrated. In doth aiU, 

price 7/6 nett, by pott 8/-. ! 

War Medals and Decorations. A Manual for Collectors, with some ! 

account of Civil Rewards for Valour. By D. Hastings Irwin. Revised j 

and Enlarged Edition. Beantifully Illustrated. In doth giU, price 18/6 i 

nett, by pott 12/10. ' ] 



Whippet and Race-Dotf, The: How to Breed, Bear, Train, Race, and 
Exhibit the Whippet, the Management of Race Meetings, and Original Plans 
of Courses. By Freeman Llotd. In doth gilt, priced/ b, by pott 5/10. 

Whist. Scientific : Its Whys and Wherefores. Wherein all Arbitrary Dicta of 
Authority are eliminated, the Reader being taken step by step through the \i 
Reasoning Operations upon which the Rules of Play are based. By C. J. 
Melrose, with Illustrative Hands printed in Colour. In doth giU, price lib, 
bypmtlfiO, 9 »Mr <  



r^ 



170, Strand, London, W»C, 



17 



Wild Blinds, Crlea and Call Notes of, Deacribed at Length, and In many 
Instances niustrated by Moaioal Notation. By C. A. Witchell. In paper, 

price 1/-, 6y post 1/2. 

Vlldfowllni^, Praotloal : A Book on Wildfowl and WUdfowl Shooting. By 
Ht. Sharp. The result of 25 years' experience Wildfowl Shooting under 
all sorts of conditioBs of locality as well as circumstances. Profusely HIus- 
tmted. Demiy 8w, etoih gilt, price 12/6 neH, by poet 12/10. 

Wild Sports In iFOland. Being Picturesque and Entertaining Descriptions 
(^ several visits paid to Ireland, witii Praetical Hints likely to be of service 
to the Angler, Wildfowler, and Yachtsman. By John Bickxbdtks, Author 
of "The Book of the All-Bound An|der," Ac Beautifully Illustrated from 
Photographs taken by the Author, in cMk gitt, price 6/-, by poet 6/4. 

Windovr Tloket Writing. Containing full Instructions on the Method of 
Mixing and Using the Yaifous Inks. Ac,, required. Hints on Stencilling as 
applied to Ticket writing, together with Lessons on QIass Writing, Japanning 
on Tin, Ac. Especially written for the use of Learners and Shop Assistants. 
By Wm. C. Scott. In paper, price 1/-, by poet 1/2. 

Vlre and Sheet Ganges of the World. Compared and Compiled by 
a A. B. PFBIL8CHMIDT, of Sheffield. In paper, price 1/-, by poet 1/1. 

Wood CaFTlng tor Amateurs. Full Instructions for producing all the 
different varieties of Carvings. SECOND EDITION. Edited by D. DBNNINO. 
In paper, price l/-, by poet ij^ 

Workshop Makeshifts. Being a Collection of Practical Hints and 
Sns»estions for the use of Amateur Workers in Wood and Metal. By 
H. J. S. Cassall. Fully Illustrated. In doth giU, price 2/6, hy poet 2/d 




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